1.Adenosine A2B receptor and hyaluronan modulate pulmonary hypertension associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Karmouty-Quintana H1, Weng T, Garcia-Morales LJ, Chen NY, Pedroza M, Zhong H, Molina JG, Bunge R, Bruckner BA, Xia Y, Johnston RA, Loebe M, Zeng D, Seethamraju H, Belardinelli L, Blackburn MR. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2013 Dec;49(6):1038-47. doi: 10.1165/rcmb.2013-0089OC.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. The development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients with COPD is strongly associated with increased mortality. Chronic inflammation and changes to the lung extracellular matrix (ECM) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD, yet the mechanisms that lead to PH secondary to COPD remain unknown. Our experiments using human lung tissue show increased expression levels of the adenosine A2B receptor (ADORA2B) and a heightened deposition of hyaluronan (HA; a component of the ECM) in remodeled vessels of patients with PH associated with COPD. We also demonstrate that the expression of HA synthase 2 correlates with mean pulmonary arterial pressures in patients with COPD, with and without a secondary diagnosis of PH. Using an animal model of airspace enlargement and PH, we show that the blockade of ADORA2B is able to attenuate the development of a PH phenotype that correlates with reduced levels of HA deposition in the vessels and the down-regulation of genes involved in the synthesis of HA.
2.A2B receptor ligands: past, present and future trends.
Ortore G1, Martinelli A. Curr Top Med Chem. 2010;10(9):923-40.
A(2B) adenosine receptors have been investigated in recent years as potential target for the treatment of different pathologies. The involvement of this receptor in processes such as interleukins secretion, Ca(2+) mobilization, hepatic glucose regulation, tumor vascularisation, and cardioprotection have stimulated many researchers to develop specific agonists and antagonists. For many years, the lack of potent and selective A(2B) ligands precluded a deep exploration of their therapeutic prospective; at present, much progress in the field of antagonists led to preclinical studies for different compounds. Less populated is the universe of A(2B) agonists, but really promising for the involvement in ischemic preconditioning. A summary of the most significant advancements in the synthesis of new compounds and of the principal structure activity relationships is reported. The xanthine-based A(2B) antagonists currently show the better profile of affinity and selectivity, as CVT-6883 (CVT-Therapeutics: K(i(A2B))=22 nM, and selectivity higher than 50-fold over other subtypes), MRE-2029-F20 (Baraldi's group: K(i(A2B))=5.
3.Alterations in adenosine metabolism and signaling in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
Zhou Y1, Murthy JN, Zeng D, Belardinelli L, Blackburn MR. PLoS One. 2010 Feb 16;5(2):e9224. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009224.
BACKGROUND: Adenosine is generated in response to cellular stress and damage and is elevated in the lungs of patients with chronic lung disease. Adenosine signaling through its cell surface receptors serves as an amplifier of chronic lung disorders, suggesting adenosine-based therapeutics may be beneficial in the treatment of lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Previous studies in mouse models of chronic lung disease demonstrate that the key components of adenosine metabolism and signaling are altered. Changes include an up-regulation of CD73, the major enzyme of adenosine production and down-regulation of adenosine deaminase (ADA), the major enzyme for adenosine metabolism. In addition, adenosine receptors are elevated.
4.GS-6201, a selective blocker of the A2B adenosine receptor, attenuates cardiac remodeling after acute myocardial infarction in the mouse.
Toldo S1, Zhong H, Mezzaroma E, Van Tassell BW, Kannan H, Zeng D, Belardinelli L, Voelkel NF, Abbate A. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2012 Dec;343(3):587-95. doi: 10.1124/jpet.111.191288. Epub 2012 Aug 24.
Adenosine (Ado) is released in response to tissue injury, promotes hyperemia, and modulates inflammation. The proinflammatory effects of Ado, which are mediated by the A(2B) Ado receptor (AdoR), may exacerbate tissue damage. We hypothesized that selective blockade of the A(2B) AdoR with 3-ethyl-1-propyl-8-(1-(3-trifluoromethylbenzyl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-3,7-dihydropurine-2,6-dione (GS-6201) during acute myocardial infarction (AMI) would reduce adverse cardiac remodeling. Male ICR mice underwent coronary artery ligation or sham surgery (n = 10-12 per group). The selective A(2B) AdoR antagonist GS-6201 (4 mg/kg) was given intraperitoneally twice daily starting immediately after surgery and continuing for 14 days. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed before surgery and after 7, 14, and 28 days. A subgroup of mice was killed 72 h after surgery, and the activity of caspase-1, a key proinflammatory mediator, was measured in the cardiac tissue.