1.Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract protects the retina against early diabetic injury by activating the Nrf2 pathway.
Sun Y1, Xiu C2, Liu W1, Tao Y1, Wang J1, Qu YI3. Exp Ther Med. 2016 Apr;11(4):1253-1258. Epub 2016 Jan 29.
The present study aimed to investigate whether grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) has a protective effect on diabetic retinal function. A total of 30 Wistar rats were randomly divided into three equal groups, including the control, diabetic and GSPE-treated diabetic groups. Retinal tissue was harvested and subsequently stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) levels were evaluated using respective assay kits; whereas nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression levels were assessed by immunohistochemical and western blot analysis. Cell apoptosis in the retina was determined using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling method. The results showed that the structure of the retina was damaged in diabetic rats, as compared with the control rats. Notably, the structure of the retina improved in the GSPE-treated diabetic group, as compared with the diabetic group.
2.Grape seed protects cholestatic rats liver from ischemia/reperfusion injury.
Çakır T1, Aslaner A1, Tekeli SÖ2, Güneş K3, Kinaci E4, Doğan U1, Tekeli F2, Akyüz C5, Koç S6, Yılmaz N2. Acta Cir Bras. 2016 Mar;31(3):183-9. doi: 10.1590/S0102-865020160030000006.
PURPOSE: To determine the effect of grape-seed extract against ischemia/reperfusion injury in cholestatic liver.
3.Modulation of the neurological and vascular complications by grape seed extract in a rat model of spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury by downregulation of both osteopontin and cyclooxygenase-2.
Sakr HF1,2, Abbas AM1, Bin-Jaliah I2. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2016 Feb 12:1-9. [Epub ahead of print]
In this study, we investigated the effects of grape seed extract (GSE) on the expression of osteopontin (OPN) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in a rat model of spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury (SC-IRI). Fifty male rats were divided into 5 groups: control (CON); control + GSE (CON + GSE) (received GSE for 28 days); sham operated (Sham); IRI; and IRI + GSE. SC-IRI was induced by clamping the aorta just above the bifurcation for 45 min, and then the clamp was released for 48 h for reperfusion. IRI + GSE group received GSE for 28 days before SC-IRI. Sensory, motor, and placing/stepping reflex assessment was performed. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured in spinal cord homogenate. Immunohistochemical examination of the spinal cord for OPN and COX-2 were carried out. SC-IRI resulted in significant increase in plasma nitrite/nitrate level and spinal cord homogenate levels of TBARs and PGE2, and OPN and COX-2 expression with significant decrease in TAC.
4.Preparation and characterization of green graphene using grape seed extract for bioapplications.
Yaragalla S1, Rajendran R2, Jose J2, AlMaadeed MA3, Kalarikkal N4, Thomas S5. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2016 Aug 1;65:345-53. doi: 10.1016/j.msec.2016.04.050. Epub 2016 Apr 18.
The development of functionalized graphene materials concerning health and environmental aspects via green approaches is currently the most recent topic in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Herein, we report the green reduction of graphene oxide (GO) to reduced graphene oxide (RGO) using grape seed extract (GSE). Structural properties of the prepared RGO were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), UV-Visible spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. These all characterization techniques clearly revealed that the RGO has been successfully prepared. Moreover, the average thickness (4.2nm) of RGO layers was also confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Optical properties such as band gap and photoluminescence of the synthesized RGO were evaluated. The band gap of RGO was found to be 3.84eV and it showed emission in the visible region.