1.Glycoursodeoxycholic acid reduces matrix metalloproteinase-9 and caspase-9 activation in a cellular model of superoxide dismutase-1 neurodegeneration.
Vaz AR1, Cunha C, Gomes C, Schmucki N, Barbosa M, Brites D. Mol Neurobiol. 2015;51(3):864-77. doi: 10.1007/s12035-014-8731-8. Epub 2014 May 22.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that affects mainly motor neurons (MNs). NSC-34 MN-like cells carrying the G93A mutation in human superoxide dismutase-1 (hSOD1(G93A)) are a common model to study the molecular mechanisms of neurodegeneration in ALS. Although the underlying pathways of MN failure still remain elusive, increased apoptosis and oxidative stress seem to be implicated. Riluzole, the only approved drug, only slightly delays ALS progression. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), as well as its glycine (glycoursodeoxycholic acid, GUDCA) and taurine (TUDCA) conjugated species, have shown therapeutic efficacy in neurodegenerative models and diseases. Pilot studies in ALS patients indicate safety and tolerability for UDCA oral administration. We explored the mechanisms associated with superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) accumulation and MN degeneration in NSC-34/hSOD1(G93A) cells differentiated for 4 days in vitro (DIV).
2.Neuritic growth impairment and cell death by unconjugated bilirubin is mediated by NO and glutamate, modulated by microglia, and prevented by glycoursodeoxycholic acid and interleukin-10.
Silva SL1, Vaz AR, Diógenes MJ, van Rooijen N, Sebastião AM, Fernandes A, Silva RF, Brites D. Neuropharmacology. 2012 Jun;62(7):2398-408. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2012.02.002. Epub 2012 Feb 13.
Neuronal oxidative damage and cell death by unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) showed to be mediated by overstimulation of glutamate receptors and nitric oxide (NO) production, which was abrogated by the bile acid glycoursodeoxycholic acid (GUDCA). Microglia, a crucial mediator of CNS inflammation, evidenced to react to UCB by releasing glutamate and NO before becoming senescent. Our studies demonstrated that neurite outgrowth deficits are produced in neurons exposed to UCB and that conditioned media from these UCB-treated neurons further stimulate NO production by microglia. Nevertheless, microglia protective and/or harmful effects in neonatal jaundice are poorly understood, or unrecognized. Here, we investigated the role of microglia, glutamate and NO in the impairment of neurite sprouting by UCB. Therapeutic potential of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 and GUDCA was also evaluated. By using MK-801 (a NMDA glutamate-subtype receptor antagonist) and L-NAME (a non-specific NO synthase inhibitor) we found that glutamate and NO are determinants in the early and enduring deficits in neurite extension and ramification induced by UCB.