Ginsenoside Rg5 - CAS 186763-78-0
Catalog number:
186763-78-0
Category:
Inhibitor
Not Intended for Therapeutic Use. For research use only.
Molecular Formula:
C42H70O12
Molecular Weight:
767.00
COA:
Inquire
Targets:
Interleukin Related | TNF-alpha
Description:
Ginsenoside Rg5, a main constituent isolated from red ginseng, exhibits anti-inflammatory property as in LPS-stimulated alveolar macrophages it inhibited the expression of proinflammatory cytokines including IL-1β and TNF-α, as same as inflammatory enzyme
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Purity:
>98%
Appearance:
White powder
Synonyms:
(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-2-[(2R,3R,4S,5S,6R)-4,5-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)-2-[[(3S,5R,8R,9R,10R,12R,13R,14R,17S)-12-hydroxy-4,4,8,10,14-pentamethyl-17-[(2Z)-6-methylhepta-2,5-dien-2-yl]-2,3,5,6,7,9,11,12,13,15,16,17-dodecahydro-1H-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-3-yl]
Solubility:
Soluble in DMSO
Storage:
Store in a cool and dry place and at 0 - 4℃ for short term (days to weeks) or -61℃ for long term (months to years).
MSDS:
Inquire
Quality Standard:
Enterprise Standard
Shelf Life:
2 years
Quantity:
Milligrams-Grams
Boiling Point:
855.6±65.0 °C | Condition: Press: 760 Torr
Density:
1.28±0.1 g/cm3
InChIKey:
NJUXRKMKOFXMRX-OOFHPJNRSA-N
InChI:
1S/C42H70O12/c1-21(2)10-9-11-22(3)23-12-16-42(8)30(23)24(45)18-28-40(6)15-14-29(39(4,5)27(40)13-17-41(28,42)7)53-38-36(34(49)32(47)26(20-44)52-38)54-37-35(50)33(48)31(46)25(19-43)51-37/h10-11,23-38,43-50H,9,12-20H2,1-8H3/b22-11-/t23-,24-,25-,26-,27+,28-,2
Canonical SMILES:
CC(=CCC=C(C)C1CCC2(C1C(CC3C2(CCC4C3(CCC(C4(C)C)OC5C(C(C(C(O5)CO)O)O)OC6C(C(C(C(O6)CO)O)O)O)C)C)O)C)C
1.Ginsenoside Rg5:Rk1 attenuates TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced production of thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17) and LPS-induced NO production via downregulation of NF-κB/p38 MAPK/STAT1 signaling in human keratinocytes and macrophages.
Ahn S1, Siddiqi MH2, Aceituno VC1, Simu SY2, Zhang J2, Jimenez Perez ZE2, Kim YJ1, Yang DC3,4,5. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2016 Mar;52(3):287-95. doi: 10.1007/s11626-015-9983-y. Epub 2015 Dec 29.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic skin disease that affects millions of people worldwide. Keratinocytes and macrophages are two cells types that play a pivotal role in the development of AD. These cells produced different chemokines and cytokines, especially thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17) and macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC/CCL22), as well as nitric oxide (NO) through inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and COX2 in response to stimulation by TNF-α/IFN-γ and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) respectively. These mediators are thought to be crucial regulators of the pathogenesis of AD. Although several natural compounds to treat AD have been studied, the effect of Rg5:Rk1 from Panax ginseng (P. ginseng) on AD has not yet been investigated. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of Rg5:Rk1 on TNF-α/IFN-γ stimulated keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) and LPS-stimulated macrophages (RAW 264.7 cells). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) data showed that pretreatment of HaCaT cells with Rg5:Rk1 significantly reduced the TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced increase in TARC/CCL17 expression in a dose-dependent manner.
2.Anti-inflammatory effect of ginsenoside Rg5 in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV2 microglial cells.
Lee YY1, Park JS, Jung JS, Kim DH, Kim HS. Int J Mol Sci. 2013 May 8;14(5):9820-33. doi: 10.3390/ijms14059820.
Microglia are resident immune cells in the central nervous system. They play a role in normal brain development and neuronal recovery. However, overactivation of microglia causes neuronal death, which is associated with neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, controlling microglial activation has been suggested as an important target for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of ginsenoside Rg5 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglial cells and rat primary microglia. The data showed that Rg5 suppressed LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production and proinflammatory TNF-α secretion. In addition, Rg5 inhibited the mRNA expressions of iNOS, TNF-α, IL-1b, COX-2 and MMP-9 induced by LPS. Further mechanistic studies revealed that Rg5 inhibited the phophorylations of PI3K/Akt and MAPKs and the DNA binding activities of NF-kB and AP-1, which are upstream molecules controlling inflammatory reactions.
3.Specific activation of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor by ginsenoside Rg5 promotes angiogenesis and vasorelaxation.
Cho YL1, Hur SM1, Kim JY1, Kim JH1, Lee DK1, Choe J2, Won MH3, Ha KS1, Jeoung D4, Han S4, Ryoo S5, Lee H5, Min JK6, Kwon YG6, Kim DH7, Kim YM8. J Biol Chem. 2015 Jan 2;290(1):467-77. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M114.603142. Epub 2014 Nov 12.
Ginsenoside Rg5 is a compound newly synthesized during the steaming process of ginseng; however, its biological activity has not been elucidated with regard to endothelial function. We found that Rg5 stimulated in vitro angiogenesis of human endothelial cells, consistent with increased neovascularization and blood perfusion in a mouse hind limb ischemia model. Rg5 also evoked vasorelaxation in aortic rings isolated from wild type and high cholesterol-fed ApoE(-/-) mice but not from endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) knock-out mice. Angiogenic activity of Rg5 was highly associated with a specific increase in insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) phosphorylation and subsequent activation of multiple angiogenic signals, including ERK, FAK, Akt/eNOS/NO, and Gi-mediated phospholipase C/Ca(2+)/eNOS dimerization pathways. The vasodilative activity of Rg5 was mediated by the eNOS/NO/cGMP axis. IGF-1R knockdown suppressed Rg5-induced angiogenesis and vasorelaxation by inhibiting key angiogenic signaling and NO/cGMP pathways.
4.Ginsenoside Rg5 improves cognitive dysfunction and beta-amyloid deposition in STZ-induced memory impaired rats via attenuating neuroinflammatory responses.
Chu S1, Gu J2, Feng L3, Liu J4, Zhang M5, Jia X5, Liu M6, Yao D7. Int Immunopharmacol. 2014 Apr;19(2):317-26. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2014.01.018. Epub 2014 Feb 4.
Neuroinflammatory responses play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Ginsenoside Rg5 (Rg5), an abundant natural compound in Panax ginseng, has been found to be beneficial in treating AD. In the present study, we demonstrated that Rg5 improved cognitive dysfunction and attenuated neuroinflammatory responses in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced memory impaired rats. Cognitive deficits were ameliorated with Rg5 (5, 10 and 20mg/kg) treatment in a dose-dependent manner together with decreased levels of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β (P<0.05) in brains of STZ rats. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was also significantly reduced by Rg5 whereas choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity was remarkably increased in the cortex and hippocampus of STZ-induced AD rats (P<0.05). In addition, Congo red and immunohistochemistry staining results showed that Rg5 alleviated Aβ deposition but enhanced the expressions of insulin-like growth factors 1 (IGF-1) and brain derived neurophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex (P<0.
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