1.Constituents of the root of Anemone tomentosa.
Hu HB1, Zheng XD, Jian YF, Liu JX, Zhu JH. Arch Pharm Res. 2011 Jul;34(7):1097-105. doi: 10.1007/s12272-011-0707-x. Epub 2011 Aug 3.
A new diterpene glycoside, tomentoside I (1), along with eleven known compounds, including the four coumarins, 4,5-dimethoxyl-7-methylcoumarin (2), 4,7-dimethoxyl-5-methylcoumarin (3), isofraxidin (4) and fraxidin (5) as well as the seven triterpenoids, oleanolic acid (6), oleanolic acid 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside (7), oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-glucopyranoside (8), hederagenin 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside (9), betulinic acid (10), 18-hydroxyursolic acid (11) and 2α,3β,23-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (12) were isolated from the ethanolic extract of the root of Anemone tomentosa and their chemical structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The antimicrobial activities of compounds 1-12 were measured using the agar disc-diffusion method. Also, their antioxidant activities against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) were evaluated.
2.Inhibitory effects of coumarins from the stem barks of Fraxinus rhynchophylla on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells.
Shin E1, Choi KM, Yoo HS, Lee CK, Hwang BY, Lee MK. Biol Pharm Bull. 2010;33(9):1610-4.
In the course of screening anti-adipogenic activity of natural products employing the preadipocyte cell line, 3T3-L1 as an in vitro assay system, the EtOAc fraction of the stem barks of Fraxinus rhynchophylla DENCE (Oleaceae) showed significant inhibitory activity on adipocyte differentiation as assessed by measuring fat accumulation using Oil Red O staining. Activity-guided fractionation led to the isolation of six coumarins such as esculetin (1), scopoletin (2), fraxetin (3), fraxidin (4) esculin (5) and fraxin (6). Among the six coumarins isolated, esculetin (1) showed the most potent inhibitory activity on adipocyte differentiation, followed by fraxetin (3). Further studies with interval treatment demonstrated that esculetin (1) exerted inhibitory activity on adipocyte differentiation when treated within 2 d (days 0-2) after differentiation induction. We further investigated the effect of esculetin (1) on peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), one of the early adipogenic transcription factors.
3.[Studies on chemical constituents and antibacterial activity from n-butanol extract of Sarcandra glabra].
Yuan K1, Zhu JX, Si JP, Cai HK, Ding XD, Pan YJ. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2008 Aug;33(15):1843-6.
OBJECTIVE: To study the chemical constituents and the antibacterial activity from n-butanol extract of Sarcandra glabra.
4.Development of a highly visual, simple, and rapid test for the discovery of novel insulin mimetics in living vertebrates.
Lee J1, Jung DW, Kim WH, Um JI, Yim SH, Oh WK, Williams DR. ACS Chem Biol. 2013 Aug 16;8(8):1803-14. doi: 10.1021/cb4000162. Epub 2013 Jun 12.
Diabetes mellitus is a global epidemic with major impacts on human health and society. Drug discovery for diabetes can be facilitated by the development of a rapid, vertebrate-based screen for identifying new insulin mimetic compounds. Our study describes the first development of a zebrafish-based system based on direct monitoring of glucose flux and validated for identifying novel anti-diabetic drugs. Our system utilizes a fluorescent-tagged glucose probe in an experimentally convenient 96-well plate format. To validate our new system, we identified compounds that can induce glucose uptake via activity-guided fractionation of the inner shell from the Japanese Chestnut (Castanea crenata). The best performing compound, UP3.2, was identified as fraxidin and validated as a novel insulin mimetic using a mammalian adipocyte system. Additional screening using sets of saponin- and triazine-based compounds was undertaken to further validate this assay, which led to the discovery of triazine PP-II-A03 as a novel insulin mimetic.