1.The neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist, ezlopitant, reduces appetitive responding for sucrose and ethanol.
Steensland P1, Simms JA, Nielsen CK, Holgate J, Bito-Onon JJ, Bartlett SE. PLoS One. 2010 Sep 1;5(9). pii: e12527. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012527.
BACKGROUND: The current obesity epidemic is thought to be partly driven by over-consumption of sugar-sweetened diets and soft drinks. Loss-of-control over eating and addiction to drugs of abuse share overlapping brain mechanisms including changes in motivational drive, such that stimuli that are often no longer 'liked' are still intensely 'wanted' , . The neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor system has been implicated in both learned appetitive behaviors and addiction to alcohol and opioids; however, its role in natural reward seeking remains unknown.
2.Anti-emetic activity of the novel nonpeptide tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonist ezlopitant (CJ-11,974) against acute and delayed cisplatin-induced emesis in the ferret.
Tsuchiya M1, Fujiwara Y, Kanai Y, Mizutani M, Shimada K, Suga O, Ueda S, Watson JW, Nagahisa A. Pharmacology. 2002 Nov;66(3):144-52.
The anti-emetic effects of a novel tachykinin NK(1) receptor antagonist, ezlopitant ((2S,3S-cis)-2-diphenylmethyl)- N-[(2-methoxy, 5-isopropylphenyl)methyl]-1-azabicyclo- [2.2.2]octan-3-amine), were investigated in ferrets. Ezlopitant inhibited [(3)H]substance P ([(3)H]SP) binding to the human, guinea pig, ferret and gerbil NK(1) receptors (K(i) = 0.2, 0.9. 0.6 and 0.5 nmol/l, respectively), but had no affinity to NK(2) and NK(3) receptors up to 1 micromol/l. Ezlopitant also inhibited SP-induced contraction of guinea pig trachea with a pA(2) value of 7.8, but had no effects on the baseline tension and maximum contractile response. In ferrets, ezlopitant, either orally (0.03-3 mg/kg) or subcutaneously (0.3-3 mg/kg), prevented acute retching and vomiting responses induced by intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin (10 mg/kg). In addition, repeated subcutaneous injection of ezlopitant significantly inhibited delayed retching and vomiting responses that occurred in ferrets treated with the lower dose of cisplatin (5 mg/kg, i.
3.Identification of the degradation product of ezlopitant, a non-peptidic substance P antagonist receptor, by hydrogen deuterium exchange, electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI/MS/MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.
Kamel AM1, Zandi KS, Massefski WW. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2003 Apr 10;31(6):1211-22.
The degradation product of ezlopitant was isolated from low specific activity material and identified by solution phase hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI/MS/MS) to be an isopropyl peroxide analog of ezlopitant. The structure of the degradant was further confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy utilizing complete 1H and 13C assignments. Studies were also performed to identify the factors responsible for the oxidative degradation of ezlopitant, which included salt form, storage conditions and salt formation solvent. Of all the variable studies over a 3 weeks period, only a change in the salt form prevented this oxidative degradation.
4.Metabolism, pharmacokinetics, and excretion of a nonpeptidic substance P receptor antagonist, ezlopitant, in normal healthy male volunteers: characterization of polar metabolites by chemical derivatization with dansyl chloride.
Prakash C1, O'Donnell J, Khojasteh-Bakht SC. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007 Jul;35(7):1071-80. Epub 2007 Apr 12.
The excretion, biotransformation, and pharmacokinetics of ezlopitant [(2-benzhydryl-1-aza-bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl)-(5-isopropyl-2-methoxy-benzyl)-amine], a substance P receptor antagonist, were investigated in healthy male volunteers after oral administration of a single 200-mg (approximately 93 microCi/subject) dose of [(14)C]ezlopitant. The total recovery of administered radioactive dose was 82.8 +/- 5.1, with 32.0 +/- 4.2% in the urine and 50.8 +/- 1.4% in the feces. Mean observed maximal serum concentrations for ezlopitant and total radioactivity were achieved at approximately 2 h after oral administration; thus, ezlopitant was rapidly absorbed. Ezlopitant was extensively metabolized in humans, since no unchanged drug was detected in urine and feces. The major pathway of ezlopitant in humans was the result of the oxidation of the isopropyl side chain to form the omega-hydroxy and omega-1-hydroxy (M16) metabolites. M16 and omega,omega-1-dihydroxy (1,2-dihydroxy, M12) were identified as the major circulating metabolites accounting for 64.