1.Oral Ezatiostat HCl (TLK199) and Myelodysplastic syndrome: a case report of sustained hematologic response following an abbreviated exposure.
Quddus F1, Clima J, Seedham H, Sajjad G, Galili N, Raza A. J Hematol Oncol. 2010 Apr 23;3:16. doi: 10.1186/1756-8722-3-16.
Treatment options for patients with lower risk non-del(5q) myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) who fail erythroid stimulating agents are restricted to one of the hypomethylating drugs with an expected response rate of approximately 50%. Ezatiostat HCl, an agent with the potential for producing multi-lineage responses in this population is currently in clinical investigation phase. This case report describes a 77 year old male who received less than two cycles of therapy with ezatiostat HCl which had to be aborted due to intolerable side effects, but which produced a sustained normalization of all three blood counts. This trilineage response has now lasted for more than a year. Interestingly, the patient began with a del(5q) abnormality and responded briefly to lenalidomide. Upon relapse of the anemia, a bone marrow showed the disappearance of the del(5q) but the appearance of a new clonal abnormality t(2;3). Given that the patient had a complete cytogenetic response to a truncated exposure to lenalidomide followed by a trilineage response to an even briefer course of ezatiostat HCl suggests a potential role for ezatiostat HCl in del(5q) patients who relapse following lenalidomide.
2.Oral ezatiostat HCl (Telintra®, TLK199) and idiopathic chronic neutropenia (ICN): a case report of complete response of a patient with G-CSF resistant ICN following treatment with ezatiostat, a glutathione S-transferase P1-1 (GSTP1-1) inhibitor.
Lyons RM1, Wilks ST, Young S, Brown GL. J Hematol Oncol. 2011 Nov 2;4:43. doi: 10.1186/1756-8722-4-43.
Idiopathic chronic neutropenia (ICN) describes a heterogeneous group of hematologic diseases characterized by low circulating neutrophil levels often associated with recurrent fevers, chronic mucosal inflammation, and severe systemic infections. The severity and risk of complications, including serious infections, are inversely proportional to the absolute neutrophil count (ANC), with the greatest problems occurring in patients with an ANC of less than 0.5 × 109/L. This case report describes a 64-year-old female with longstanding rheumatoid arthritis who subsequently developed ICN with frequent episodes of sepsis requiring hospitalization and prolonged courses of antibiotics over a 4-year period. She was treated with granulocyte colony stimulating factors (G-CSF) but had a delayed, highly variable, and volatile response. She was enrolled in a clinical trial evaluating the oral investigational agent ezatiostat. Ezatiostat, a glutathione S-transferase P1-1 inhibitor, activates Jun kinase, promoting the growth and maturation of hematopoietic progenitor stem cells.
3.Phase 1-2a multicenter dose-escalation study of ezatiostat hydrochloride liposomes for injection (Telintra, TLK199), a novel glutathione analog prodrug in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome.
Raza A1, Galili N, Callander N, Ochoa L, Piro L, Emanuel P, Williams S, Burris H 3rd, Faderl S, Estrov Z, Curtin P, Larson RA, Keck JG, Jones M, Meng L, Brown GL. J Hematol Oncol. 2009 May 13;2:20. doi: 10.1186/1756-8722-2-20.
BACKGROUND: Ezatiostat hydrochloride liposomes for injection, a glutathione S-transferase P1-1 inhibitor, was evaluated in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). The objectives were to determine the safety, pharmacokinetics, and hematologic improvement (HI) rate. Phase 1-2a testing of ezatiostat for the treatment of MDS was conducted in a multidose-escalation, multicenter study. Phase 1 patients received ezatiostat at 5 dose levels (50, 100, 200, 400 and 600 mg/m2) intravenously (IV) on days 1 to 5 of a 14-day cycle until MDS progression or unacceptable toxicity. In phase 2, ezatiostat was administered on 2 dose schedules: 600 mg/m2 IV on days 1 to 5 or days 1 to 3 of a 21-day treatment cycle.
4.Prediction of response to therapy with ezatiostat in lower risk myelodysplastic syndrome.
Galili N1, Tamayo P, Botvinnik OB, Mesirov JP, Brooks MR, Brown G, Raza A. J Hematol Oncol. 2012 May 6;5:20. doi: 10.1186/1756-8722-5-20.
BACKGROUND: Approximately 70% of all patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) present with lower-risk disease. Some of these patients will initially respond to treatment with growth factors to improve anemia but will eventually cease to respond, while others will be resistant to growth factor therapy. Eventually, all lower-risk MDS patients require multiple transfusions and long-term therapy. While some patients may respond briefly to hypomethylating agents or lenalidomide, the majority will not, and new therapeutic options are needed for these lower-risk patients. Our previous clinical trials with ezatiostat (ezatiostat hydrochloride, Telentra®, TLK199), a glutathione S-transferase P1-1 inhibitor in clinical development for the treatment of low- to intermediate-risk MDS, have shown significant clinical activity, including multilineage responses as well as durable red-blood-cell transfusion independence. It would be of significant clinical benefit to be able to identify patients most likely to respond to ezatiostat before therapy is initiated.