1.Evaluation of cardiovascular changes in dogs administered three positive controls using jacketed external telemetry-blood pressure (JET-BP).
Kremer JJ1, Bills AJ2, Hanke NJ2, Chen H2, Meier WA2, Osinski MA2, Foley CM2. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods. 2015 Sep-Oct;75:27-37. doi: 10.1016/j.vascn.2015.05.008. Epub 2015 May 20.
INTRODUCTION: Nonclinical safety studies are increasingly incorporating cardiac safety endpoints to discover potential cardiovascular liabilities. This trend for more thorough cardiovascular nonclinical safety evaluation is prudent given the high attrition rate of potential therapeutics due to unexpected cardiovascular liabilities discovered in late-stage clinical trials or post-market approval. In particular, the causal relationship of blood pressure changes that lead to risk of major adverse cardiac events suggests hemodynamic changes should be critically evaluated in preclinical studies of novel therapeutics.
2.Drug Release Properties of a Series of Adenine-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks.
Oh H1, Li T2, An J3. Chemistry. 2015 Nov 16;21(47):17010-5. doi: 10.1002/chem.201501560. Epub 2015 Sep 25.
The drug uptake and release properties of a series of biomolecule-based metal-organic frameworks (bMOF-1, bMOF-4, bMOF-100, and bMOF-102) have been studied. The bMOFs were loaded with the small molecule etilefrine hydrochloride and release profiles were collected in both Nanopure water and simulated body fluid (SBF). Each bMOF exhibited an initial burst of drug release at the initial stages of the experiment followed by a gradual release of the remaining drug molecules over time. bMOF-1 released 50% of the drug after 15 days and complete release at 80 days in SBF. bMOF-4 released 50% of the drug within two days and complete release at 49 days in SBF. bMOF-100 and bMOF-102 released 50% of the drug after 4 h and complete release at 69 and 54 days in SBF, respectively.
3.Development studies on determination of preservatives decomposition products.
Zabrzewska B, Chyła A, Bogdan A. Acta Pol Pharm. 2014 Jul-Aug;71(4):563-73.
Preservatives are chemical substances whose role is to protect medicinal products against harmful changes caused by microorganisms. They are added to sterile medicinal products, such as eye drops and multidose solutions for injections, as well as to non-sterile products, such as water oral solutions, creams, gels, suppositories and capsules with liquid content. The most commonly used preservatives include: benzyl alcohol, butyl, ethyl, methyl and propyl p-hydroxybenzoates and their sodium salts. In medicinal products benzyl alcohol slowly oxidizes to benzaldehyde and benzoic acid while esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid hydrolyze to p-hydroxybenzoic acid. HPLC methods were elaborated for identification and quantitative determination of the parabens, benzyl alcohol, active substances as well as their impurities in pharmaceuticals: oral solutions Amertil and Efforil (contain cetirizine hydrochloride or etilefrine hydrochloride and parabens), eye drops Difadol (contains diclofenac sodium and benzyl alcohol) and cream Tenasil (contains terbinafine hydrochloride and benzyl alcohol).
4.The changing management of chylothorax in the modern era.
Bender B1, Murthy V2, Chamberlain RS3. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2016 Jan;49(1):18-24. doi: 10.1093/ejcts/ezv041. Epub 2015 Mar 1.
Initial conservative therapy is applied to all cases of chylothorax (CTx) with expected excellent outcomes. The indication for aggressive surgical treatment of early CTx remains uncertain and requires rigorous scientific scrutiny. Lymphangiography and lymphoscintigraphy are useful to localize the leak and assess thoracic duct patency as well as to differentiate partial from complete thoracic duct transection. The aetiology of the CTx, flow rate and patient condition dictate the preferred management. Octreotide/somatostatin and etilefrine therapy is highly efficacious in the conservative management of CTx. For patients in whom conservative management fails, those who are good surgical candidates, and those in whom the site of the leak is well identified, surgical repair and/or ligation using minimally invasive techniques is highly successful with limited adverse outcomes. Similarly, if the site of the chylous effusion cannot be well visualized, a thoracic duct ligation via video-assisted thoracic surgery is the gold standard approach.