Ethynodiol diacetate - CAS 297-76-7
Catalog number: 297-76-7
Category: Inhibitor
Not Intended for Therapeutic Use. For research use only.
Molecular Formula:
Molecular Weight:
Progesterone Receptor
Ethynodiol diacetate is one of the first synthetic progestogens used in contraceptive pills.Relative to other 19-nortestosterone derivatives, it has relatively little or no potency as an androgen and also unlike most progestins in general, has significant estrogenic effects.
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1.Recent oral contraceptive use by formulation and breast cancer risk among women 20 to 49 years of age.
Beaber EF1, Buist DS2, Barlow WE3, Malone KE4, Reed SD5, Li CI4. Cancer Res. 2014 Aug 1;74(15):4078-89. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-13-3400.
Previous studies of oral contraceptives and breast cancer indicate that recent use slightly increases risk, but most studies relied on self-reported use and did not examine contemporary oral contraceptive formulations. This nested case-control study was among female enrollees in a large U.S. integrated health care delivery system. Cases were 1,102 women ages 20 to 49 years diagnosed with invasive breast cancer from 1990 to 2009. Controls were randomly sampled from enrollment records (n = 21,952) and matched to cases on age, year, enrollment length, and medical chart availability. Detailed oral contraceptive use information was ascertained from electronic pharmacy records and analyzed using conditional logistic regression, ORs, and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Recent oral contraceptive use (within the prior year) was associated with an increased breast cancer risk (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.3-1.9) relative to never or former OC use. The association was stronger for estrogen receptor-positive (ER(+); OR, 1.
2.The challenge presented by progestins in ecotoxicological research: a critical review.
Kumar V1, Johnson AC, Trubiroha A, Tumová J, Ihara M, Grabic R, Kloas W, Tanaka H, Kroupová HK. Environ Sci Technol. 2015 Mar 3;49(5):2625-38. doi: 10.1021/es5051343. Epub 2015 Feb 10.
Around 20 progestins (also called gestagens, progestogens, or progestagens) are used today in assisting a range of medical conditions from endometrial cancer to uterine bleeding and as an important component of oral contraception. These progestins can bind to a wide range of receptors including progestin, estrogen, androgen, glucocorticoid, and mineralocorticoid receptor, as well as sex hormone and corticosteroid binding globulins. It appears that only five of these (four synthetic and one natural) progestins have so far been studied in sewage effluent and surface waters. Analysis has reported values as either nondetects or low nanograms per liter in rivers. Seven of the progestins have been examined for their effects on aquatic vertebrates (fish and frogs). The greatest concern is associated with levonorgestrel, norethisterone, and gestodene and their ability to reduce egg production in fish at levels of 0.8-1.0 ng/L. The lack of environmental measurements, and some of the contradictions in existing values, however, hampers our ability to make a risk assessment.
3.Progestin-only pills for contraception.
Grimes DA1, Lopez LM, O'Brien PA, Raymond EG. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Jan 20;(1):CD007541. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007541.pub2.
BACKGROUND: The introduction of a new progestin-only oral contraceptive in Europe has renewed interest in this class of oral contraceptives. Unlike the more widely used combined oral contraceptives containing an estrogen plus progestin, these pills contain only a progestin (progestogen) and are taken without interruption. How these pills compare to others in their class or to combined oral contraceptives is not clear.
4.Oral contraceptives and the risk of gallbladder disease: a comparative safety study.
Etminan M1, Delaney JA, Bressler B, Brophy JM. CMAJ. 2011 May 17;183(8):899-904. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.110161. Epub 2011 Apr 18.
BACKGROUND: Recent concerns have been raised about the risk of gallbladder disease associated with the use of drospirenone, a fourth-generation progestin used in oral contraceptives. We conducted a study to determine the magnitude of this risk compared with other formulations of oral contraceptives.
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CAS 297-76-7 Ethynodiol diacetate

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