1.The reactivity of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) in alcoholic solutions.
Hennessy SA1, Moane SM, McDermott SD. J Forensic Sci. 2004 Nov;49(6):1220-9.
In this work the stability of GBL (gamma-butyrolactone) and GHB (gamma-hydroxybutyric acid) in alcoholic media was studied. Under acidic conditions the GBL will react with ethanol or methanol to give the corresponding ethyl and methyl esters of GHB. It can be seen that ester formation is dependent on the type of alcohol, the alcohol content of the solution, and the pH of the solution. Under the same conditions it was shown that GHB does not give rise directly to the corresponding ester when merely in the presence of an alcohol; however the ester will be formed if the conditions are present for conversion of GHB to GBL followed by subsequent reaction with alcohol. In alcoholic beverage samples spiked with GBL the expected conversion to GHB occurred, and the formation of the ethyl ester of GHB was also seen in some samples. Wine samples were analyzed for the presence of the ethyl ester of GHB, and the effect of adding GHB/GBL to hot beverages was studied.
2.Effects of Fermentation Temperature on Key Aroma Compounds and Sensory Properties of Apple Wine.
Peng B1, Li F1, Cui L2, Guo Y2. J Food Sci. 2015 Dec;80(12):S2937-43. doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.13111. Epub 2015 Oct 28.
Fermentation temperature strongly affects yeast metabolism during apple wine making and thus aromatic and quality profiles. In this study, the temperature effect during apple wine making on both the key aroma compounds and sensory properties of apple wine were investigated. The concentration of nine key aroma compounds (ethyl acetate, isobutyl acetate, isopentylacetate, ethyl caprylate, ethyl 4-hydroxybutanoate, isobutylalcohol, isopentylalcohol, 3-methylthio-1-propanol, and benzeneethanol) in apple wine significantly increased with the increase of fermentation temperature from 17 to 20 °C, and then eight out of the nine key aroma compounds with an exception of ethyl 4-hydroxybutanoate, decreased when the temperature goes up 20 to 26 °C. Sensory analysis showed that the apple wine fermented at 20 °C had the highest acceptance for consumers. Fermentation at the temperature of 20 °C was therefore considered to be the most suitable condition using the selected yeast strain (Saccharomyces cerevisiae AP05) for apple wine making.
3.Discriminative stimulus effects of gamma-hydroxybutyrate: role of training dose.
Koek W1, Chen W, Mercer SL, Coop A, France CP. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 Apr;317(1):409-17. Epub 2005 Dec 5.
gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a drug of abuse with actions at GHB and GABA receptors. This study examined whether the relative importance of GABA(A), GABA(B), and GHB receptors in the discriminative stimulus effects of GHB depends on the training dose. In comparison with a previous 100 mg/kg GHB-saline discrimination, pigeons were trained to discriminate either 178 or 56 mg/kg GHB from saline. Increasing the training dose shifted the GHB gradient to the right, and decreasing it shifted the gradient to the left. Similar shifts occurred with the GHB precursor gamma-butyrolactone, which substituted for GHB, and with the GABA(B) agonists baclofen and 3-aminopropyl(methyl)phosphinic acid hydrochloride (SKF97541) and the benzodiazepine diazepam, each of which produced at most 54 to 68% GHB-appropriate responding. The benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil, the benzodiazepine inverse agonist ethyl 8-azido-6-dihydro-5-methyl-6-oxo-4H-imidazo[1,5-alpha]-[1,4]-benzodiazepine-3-carboxylate (Ro 15-4513), and the GHB receptor antagonist (2E)-5-hydroxy-5,7,8,9-tetrahydro-6H-benzo[a]annulen-6-ylidene ethanoic acid (NCS-382) produced a maximum of 66 to 97% GHB-appropriate responding in animals discriminating 56 or 100 mg/kg GHB and a maximum of 1 to 49% in animals discriminating 178 mg/kg.
4.gamma-Hydroxybutyrate binds to the synaptic site recognizing succinate monocarboxylate: a new hypothesis on astrocyte-neuron interaction via the protonation of succinate.
Molnár T1, Barabás P, Héja L, Fekete EK, Lasztóczi B, Szabó P, Nyitrai G, Simon-Trompler E, Hajós F, Palkovits M, Kardos J. J Neurosci Res. 2008 May 15;86(7):1566-76. doi: 10.1002/jnr.21608.
Succinate (SUC), a citrate (CIT) cycle intermediate, and carbenoxolone (CBX), a gap junction inhibitor, were shown to displace [3H]gamma-hydroxybutyrate ([3H]GHB), which is specifically bound to sites present in synaptic membrane subcellular fractions of the rat forebrain and the human nucleus accumbens. Elaboration on previous work revealed that acidic pH-induced specific binding of [3H]SUC occurs, and it has been shown to have a biphasic displacement profile distinguishing high-affinity (K(i,SUC) = 9.1 +/- 1.7 microM) and low-affinity (K(i,SUC) = 15 +/- 7 mM) binding. Both high- and low- affinity sites were characterized by the binding of GHB (K(i,GHB) = 3.9 +/- 0.5 microM and K(i,GHB) = 5.0 +/- 2.0 mM) and lactate (LAC; K(i,LAC) = 3.9 +/- 0.5 microM and K(i,LAC) = 7.7 +/- 0.9 mM). Ligands, including the hemiester ethyl-hemi-SUC, and the gap junction inhibitors flufenamate, CBX, and the GHB binding site-selective NCS-382 interacted with the high-affinity site (in microM: K(i,EHS) = 17 +/- 5, K(i,FFA) = 24 +/- 13, K(i,CBX) = 28 +/- 9, K(i,NCS-382) = 0.