1.Ethonafide-induced cytotoxicity is mediated by topoisomerase II inhibition in prostate cancer cells.
Pourpak A1, Landowski TH, Dorr RT. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Jun;321(3):1109-17. Epub 2007 Mar 9.
Ethonafide is an anthracene-containing derivative of amonafide that belongs to the azonafide series of anticancer agents. The lack of cross-resistance in multidrug-resistant cancer cell lines and the absence of a quinone and hydroquinone moiety make ethonafide a potentially less cardiotoxic replacement for existing anthracene-containing anticancer agents. For this study, we investigated the anticancer activity and mechanism of ethonafide in human prostate cancer cell lines. Ethonafide was cytotoxic against three human prostate cancer cell lines at nanomolar concentrations. Ethonafide was found to be better tolerated and more effective at inhibiting tumor growth compared with mitoxantrone in a human xenograft tumor regression mouse model. Mechanistically, we found that ethonafide inhibited topoisomerase II activity by stabilizing the enzyme-DNA complex, involving both topoisomerase IIalpha and -beta. In addition, ethonafide induced a potent G(2) cell cycle arrest in the DU 145 human prostate cancer cell line.
2.Therapeutic effect of anthracene-based anticancer agent ethonafide in an animal model of multiple sclerosis.
Piao WH1, Wong R, Bai XF, Huang J, Campagnolo DI, Dorr RT, Vollmer TL, Shi FD. J Immunol. 2007 Dec 1;179(11):7415-23.
The side effects of cancer chemotherapeutic agents such as mitoxantrone (MIT) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients justify the search for less toxic drugs. Ethonafide is an anthracene-based antineoplastic drug similar to MIT. With reference to MIT, we examined the effect of ethonafide on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in C57BL/6 mice, an animal model of human MS. We demonstrated that ethonafide is effective in preventing development of EAE as well as in ameliorating the severity of EAE when disease is ongoing. In relatively higher dosages, the effects of ethonafide and MIT on EAE were identical, whereas in lower dosages, MIT seemed more effective. Therapeutic effects of ethonafide were associated with the initial reduction in cellular counts of CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+), B220(+), CD11b(+), NK cells, and NKT cells, followed by recovery of these cells from the bone marrow. Interestingly, the recovered autoreactive T cells in ethonafide-treated animals have reduced capacity to expand and produce cytokines in response to myelin Ag stimulation.
3.Proteasomal inhibition stabilizes topoisomerase IIalpha protein and reverses resistance to the topoisomerase II poison ethonafide (AMP-53, 6-ethoxyazonafide).
Congdon LM1, Pourpak A, Escalante AM, Dorr RT, Landowski TH. Biochem Pharmacol. 2008 Feb 15;75(4):883-90. Epub 2007 Nov 4.
Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable malignancy of plasma cells. Although multiple myeloma patients often respond to initial therapy, the majority of patients will relapse with disease that is refractory to further drug treatment. Thus, new therapeutic strategies are needed. One common mechanism of acquired drug resistance involves a reduction in the expression or function of the drug target. We hypothesized that the cytotoxic activity of topoisomerase II (topo II) poisons could be enhanced, and drug resistance overcome, by increasing the expression and activity of the drug target, topo II in myeloma cells. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the cytotoxicity of the anthracene-containing topo II poison, ethonafide (AMP-53/6-ethoxyazonafide), in combination with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (PS-341/Velcade). Combination drug activity studies were done in 8226/S myeloma cells and its drug resistant subclone, 8226/Dox1V. We found that a 24-h treatment of cells with bortezomib maximally increased topo IIalpha protein expression and activity, and consistently increased the cytotoxicity of ethonafide in the 8226/S and 8226/Dox1V cell lines.