ESI-09 - CAS 263707-16-0
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Not Intended for Therapeutic Use. For research use only.
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ESI-09 is a specific exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (EPAC) inhibitor with IC50 of 3.2 μM and 1.4 μM for EPAC1 and EPAC2, respectively, >100-fold selectivity over PKA.ESI-09 is a novel noncyclic nucleotide EPAC antagonist that is capable of specifically blocking intracellular EPAC-mediated Rap1 activation and Akt phosphorylation, as well as EPAC-mediated insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells. EPAC1 plays an important role in pancreatic cancer cell migration and invasion, and thus represents a potential target for developing novel therapeutic strategies for pancreatic cancer.
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1.Epac-inhibitors: facts and artefacts.
Rehmann H1. Sci Rep. 2013 Oct 23;3:3032. doi: 10.1038/srep03032.
cAMP is a universal second messenger. Its signalling is mediated by protein kinase A, Epac and certain types of ion channels in mammalians. cAMP signalling is involved in many physiological processes ranging from vision to the control of insulin secretion, pacemaker activity and gene transcription and therefore selective pharmacological interference is of medical interest. Whereas selective inhibitors of PKA and selective activators of Epac are well established, no inhibitors of Epac were available until recently. Here the action of four of the novel Epac inhibitors was analysed by biophysical means. ESI-05 is confirmed as a selective inhibitor of Epac2. No direct action of Brefeldin A on Epac could be demonstrated. ESI-09 and HJC0197 were found to act as chemicals with general protein denaturing properties and do not act on Epac selectively.
2.Exchange protein directly activated by cAMP plays a critical role in bacterial invasion during fatal rickettsioses.
Gong B1, Shelite T, Mei FC, Ha T, Hu Y, Xu G, Chang Q, Wakamiya M, Ksiazek TG, Boor PJ, Bouyer DH, Popov VL, Chen J, Walker DH, Cheng X. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Nov 26;110(48):19615-20. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1314400110. Epub 2013 Nov 11.
Rickettsiae are responsible for some of the most devastating human infections. A high infectivity and severe illness after inhalation make some rickettsiae bioterrorism threats. We report that deletion of the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) gene, Epac1, in mice protects them from an ordinarily lethal dose of rickettsiae. Inhibition of Epac1 suppresses bacterial adhesion and invasion. Most importantly, pharmacological inhibition of Epac1 in vivo using an Epac-specific small-molecule inhibitor, ESI-09, completely recapitulates the Epac1 knockout phenotype. ESI-09 treatment dramatically decreases the morbidity and mortality associated with fatal spotted fever rickettsiosis. Our results demonstrate that Epac1-mediated signaling represents a mechanism for host-pathogen interactions and that Epac1 is a potential target for the prevention and treatment of fatal rickettsioses.
3.Structure-Activity Relationship Studies of Substituted 2-(Isoxazol-3-yl)-2-oxo-N'-phenyl-acetohydrazonoyl Cyanide Analogues: Identification of Potent Exchange Proteins Directly Activated by cAMP (EPAC) Antagonists.
Ye N1, Zhu Y2, Chen H1, Liu Z1, Mei FC2, Wild C1, Chen H1, Cheng X2, Zhou J1. J Med Chem. 2015 Aug 13;58(15):6033-47. doi: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.5b00635. Epub 2015 Jul 16.
Exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (EPAC) as guanine nucleotide exchange factors mediate the effects of the pivotal second messenger cAMP, thereby regulating a wide variety of intracellular physiological and pathophysiological processes. A series of novel 2-(isoxazol-3-yl)-2-oxo-N'-phenyl-acetohydrazonoyl cyanide EPAC antagonists was synthesized and evaluated in an effort to optimize properties of the previously identified high-throughput (HTS) hit 1 (ESI-09). Structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis led to the discovery of several more active EPAC antagonists (e.g., 22 (HJC0726), 35 (NY0123), and 47 (NY0173)) with low micromolar inhibitory activity. These inhibitors may serve as valuable pharmacological probes to facilitate our efforts in elucidating the biological functions of EPAC and developing potential novel therapeutics against human diseases. Our SAR results have also revealed that further modification at the 3-, 4-, and 5-positions of the phenyl ring as well as the 5-position of the isoxazole moiety may allow for the development of more potent EPAC antagonists.
4.cAMP controls the restoration of endothelial barrier function after thrombin-induced hyperpermeability via Rac1 activation.
Aslam M1, Tanislav C2, Troidl C1, Schulz R3, Hamm C1, Gündüz D1. Physiol Rep. 2014 Oct 24;2(10). pii: e12175. doi: 10.14814/phy2.12175. Print 2014 Oct 1.
Inflammatory mediators like thrombin disrupt endothelial adherens junctions (AJs) and barrier integrity leading to oedema formation followed by resealing of AJs and a slow recovery of the barrier function. The molecular mechanisms of this process have not yet been fully delineated. The aim of the present study was to analyse the molecular mechanism of endothelial barrier recovery and thrombin was used as model inflammatory mediator. Thrombin caused a strong increase in endothelial permeability within 10 min accompanied by loss of Rac1 but not cdc42 activity, drop in cellular cAMP contents, and a strong activation of the endothelial contractile machinery mainly via RhoA/Rock signalling. Activation of RhoA/Rock signalling precedes and is dependent upon a rise in the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. Inhibition of cytosolic Ca(2+) rise but not MLCK or Rock enhances the recovery of endothelial barrier function. The cellular cAMP contents increased gradually during the barrier recovery phase (30-60 min after thrombin challenge) accompanied by an increase in Rac1 activity.
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CAS 263707-16-0 ESI-09

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