1. Isolation of a novel high erythritol-producing Pseudozyma tsukubaensis and scale-up of erythritol fermentation to industrial level
Marimuthu Jeya & Kyoung-Mi Lee & Manish Kumar Tiwari & Jung-Soo Kim. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol (2009) 83:225–231
Chemical and fermentative processes have been introduced for large-scale production of erythritol. Erythritol can be synthesized from dialdehyde starch by chemical reaction at high temperatures in the presence of a nickel catalyst (Pfeifer et al. 1960). However, this process has not been industrialized because of its low efficiency. Erythritol also can be produced by microbial fermentation using osmophilic yeasts and some bacteria (Cunha et al. 1992; Ryu et al. 2000; Seo et al. 2001; Lee et al. 2002). Erythritol was found to be synthesized from erythrose-4-phosphate, an intermediate of the pentose phosphate cycle, by dephosphorylation followed by reduction of the resultant erythrose. Erythrose reductase, catalyzing this last step, is well known as a key enzyme for the biosynthesis of erythritol (Tokuoka et al. 1992; Lee et al. 2003).
2. Identiﬁcation of a newly isolated erythritol-producing yeast and cloning of its erythritol reductase genes
Huihui Deng • Ye Han • Yuanyuan Liu •Wei Jia • Zhijiang Zhou. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol (2012) 39:1663–1672
Erythritol (1,2,3,4-butanetetrol) is a four-carbon sugar alcohol that is widely distributed in nature. It has been detected in fruits, fermented foods, drinks as well as in the body ﬂuids of mammals, and it can be decomposed by bacteria, mushrooms, and yeast. Erythritol has about 70 % of the sweetness of sucrose in a 10 % (w/v) solution. The safety of erythritol has been demonstrated consistently by both animal toxicological and clinical studies, even when consumed on a daily basis in high amounts. More than 90 % of ingested erythritol is not metabolized by the human body and is excreted unchanged in the urine without changing blood glucose and insulin levels. Besides, it has been reported that erythritol acts as an antioxidant in vivo and may help protect against hyperglycemia-induced vascular damage. Therefore, erythritol can be used as a functional sugar substitute in special foods for people with diabetes and obesity.
3. Effect of using Erythritol as a Sucrose Replacer in Making Spanish Muffins Incorporating Xanthan Gum
Sandra Martínez-Cervera & Esther de la Hera & Teresa Sanz & Manuel Gómez & Ana Salvador. Food Bioprocess Technol (2012) 5:3203–3216
Due to the complex structural functionality of sucrose in baked products, obtaining good quality low-sucrose products is a difficult task. Sugar alcohols are typical sucrose replacers in baked goods (Olinger and Velasco 1996) and their properties have been studied by many authors (Kamel and Rasper 1988; Baeva et al. 2003; Ronda et al. 2005). Erythritol (Er) plays a similar role to sucrose, providing some of its properties in bakery products (Haji 2009). Erythritol is a four-carbon sugar alcohol with about 60–80% of the sweetness of sucrose (Goossens and Roeper
1994) which is obtained via a natural fermentation process (Haji 2009). It is suitable for people with diabetes because blood glucose and insulin levels do not increase when erythritol is administered orally to healthy male subjects (Noda et al. 1994). Erythritol can replace sucrose, reducing the calorie content of the product to less than 0.5 kcal/g (Oku and Noda 1990). Tetzloff et al. (1996) studied the effect of addition of erythritol at a concentration of 1 g/kg body weight in the diet of 12 healthy male volunteers and they found no problems of intolerance at this dose.Therefore, the conclusion of this study was that 1 g/kg body weight was well tolerated by humans. Lin et al. (2003) studied the sensory quality and physical characteristics of chiffon cake with replacement of sucrose by erythritol, obtaining comparable results to cake prepared with 100% sucrose. Akesowan (2009) studied the replacement of sucrose by a mixture of erythritol and sucralose in reduced fat chiffon cakes and obtained acceptable sensory quality in a 50% erythritol–sucrose chiffon cake, although a 50% erythritol–sucrose system is not suitable for diabetic products.