EIT hydrobromide - CAS 1071-37-0
Category: Inhibitor
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Nitric oxide synthase (NOS)
EIT hydrobromide is a potent and reversible inhibitor of isoform II NO synthase (IC50 = 13 nM; approximately 20- and 30-fold selective over isoforms I and III respectively).
Brife Description:
isoform II NOS inhibitor
(S)-Ethylisothiourea hydrobromide; 2-Ethyl-2-thiopseudourea hydrobromide; Ethiron bromide
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1.Short-term regulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes is mediated through the inducible nitric oxide synthase/nitric oxide-dependent pathway.
Lien CC;Au LC;Tsai YL;Ho LT;Juan CC Endocrinology. 2009 Nov;150(11):4892-900. doi: 10.1210/en.2009-0403. Epub 2009 Oct 9.
TNF-alpha has several effects on adipocytes that may be related to the development of type 2 diabetes in obese subjects. Many studies demonstrated that long-term treatment with TNF-alpha increases lipolysis in adipocytes. However, the short-term (<4 h) effects of TNF-alpha on lipolysis have not been well investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term regulatory mechanism of TNF-alpha-induced lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Well-differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were used. Lipolysis was determined by measuring glycerol release. Expression of inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) production were measured, respectively, by Western blots and the Griess reagent. A selective iNOS inhibitor (s-ethylisothiourea . HBr), an adenylyl cyclase inhibitor (SQ22536), and a guanylyl cyclase inhibitor (LY83583) were used to investigate the involvement of iNOS, cAMP, and cGMP in TNF-alpha-induced lipolysis. Transient transfection with iNOS short hairpin RNA was performed to confirm the involvement of iNOS in TNF-alpha-induced lipolysis. Phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) was measured by immunoprecipitation and Western blotting. Results showed that short-term TNF-alpha treatment significantly increased lipolysis, iNOS expression, and NO production in a time- and dose-dependent manner.
2.Protection against MPP+ neurotoxicity in cerebellar granule cells by antioxidants.
González-Polo RA;Soler G;Rodríguezmartín A;Morán JM;Fuentes JM Cell Biol Int. 2004;28(5):373-80.
The neuropathology associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) is thought to involve excessive production of free radicals, dopamine autoxidation, defects in glutathione peroxidase expression, attenuated levels of reduced glutathione, altered calcium homeostasis, excitotoxicity and genetic defects in mitochondrial complex I activity. While the neurotoxic mechanisms are vastly different for excitotoxins and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+)), both are thought to involve free radical production, compromised mitochondrial activity and excessive lipid peroxidation. We show here that the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) increased significantly after treatment of cultured cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) with 50 microM MPP(+). Co-treatment with antioxidants such as ascorbate (ASC), catalase, alpha-tocopherol (alpha-TOH), coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)) or superoxide dismutase (SOD) rescued the cells from MPP(+)-induced death. MPP(+)-induced cell death was also abolished by co-treatment with nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors such as 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), 2-ethyl-2-thiopseudourea hydrobromide (EPTU) or S-methylisothiourea sulphate (MPTU). We also tested the protective effects of an iron chelator (deferoxamine mesylate, DFx) and a peroxynitrite scavenger (FeTTPS) and the results lend further support to the view that the free radical cytotoxicity plays an essential role in MPP(+)-induced death in primary cultures of CGC.
3.Calcium/calmodulin-dependent nitric oxide synthase activity in the CNS of Aplysia californica: biochemical characterization and link to cGMP pathways.
Bodnárová M;Martásek P;Moroz LL J Inorg Biochem. 2005 Apr;99(4):922-8.
We characterized enzymatic activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the central nervous system of Aplysia californica, a popular experimental model in cellular and system neuroscience, and provided biochemical evidence for NO-cGMP signaling in molluscs. Aplysia NOS (ApNOS) activity, determined as citrulline formation, revealed its calcium-/calmodulin-(Ca/CaM) and NADPH dependence and it was inhibited by 50% with 5mM of W7 hydrochloride (a potent Ca/CaM-dependent phosphodiesterase inhibitor). A representative set of inhibitors for mammalian NOS isoforms also suppressed NOS activity in Aplysia. Specifically, the ApNOS was inhibited by 65-92% with 500 microM of L-NAME (a competitive NOS inhibitor) whereas d-NAME at the same concentration had no effect. S-Ethylisothiourea hydrobromide (5mM), a selective inhibitor of all NOS isoforms, suppressed ApNOS by 85%, l-N6-(1-iminoethyl)lysine dihydrochloride (L-NIL, 5mM), an iNOS inhibitor, by 78% and L-thiocitrulline (5mM) (an inhibitor of nNOS and iNOS) by greater than 95%. Polyclonal antibodies raised against rat nNOS hybridized with a putative purified ApNOS (160 kDa protein) from partially purified central nervous system homogenates in Western blot studies.
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CAS 1071-37-0 EIT hydrobromide

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