1.Simultaneous determination of ten taste and odor compounds in drinking water by solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
Chen X1, Luo Q2, Yuan S2, Wei Z2, Song H2, Wang D2, Wang Z2. J Environ Sci (China). 2013 Nov 1;25(11):2313-23.
Taste and odor (T&O) problems in drinking water frequently occur because of many compounds present in the water, of which trans-1,10-dimethyl-trans-9-decalol (geosmin) and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) are well-known. In this study, a fast and effective method was established for simultaneous determination of 10 T&O compounds, including geosmin, MIB, 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA), 2-methylbenzofuran, 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine (IPMP), 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine (IBMP), cis-3-hexenyl acetate, trans,trans-2,4-heptadienal, trans, cis-2,6-nonadienal, and trans-2-decenal in water samples by headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. An orthogonal array experimental design was used to optimize the effects of SPME fiber, extraction temperature, stirring rate, NaCI content, extraction time, and desorption time. The limits of detection ranged from 0.1 to 73 ng/L were lower than or close to the odor threshold concentrations (OTCs).
2.Mutagenicity of beta-alkyl substituted acrolein congeners in the Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100 and genotoxicity testing in the SOS chromotest.
Eder E1, Deininger C, Neudecker T, Deininger D. Environ Mol Mutagen. 1992;19(4):338-45.
The beta-alkyl substituted acrolein congeners crotonaldehyde, trans-2-pentenal, trans-2-hexenal, 2,4-hexadienal, and trans-2-heptenal were clearly mutagenic in a slightly modified preincubation Ames test with Salmonella typhimurium TA100 with and without S9 mix using a threefold bacterial cell density and a 90-min preincubation time, whereas trans-cis-2,6-nonadienal did not show any mutagenic activity. The greatest impediment to adequate mutagenicity testing of these compounds is their toxicity toward bacteria. Within the congener family tested, toxicity increases as a function of both chain length and lipophilicity, and it becomes more and more difficult to demonstrate mutagenicity. Mutagenicity decreases with increasing chain length. This effect may be explained by increasing toxicity. The effect of S9 mix seems to be mostly nonenzymatic detoxication by nonspecific scavanger protection of bacterial cytotoxicity. No indication could be found that bioactivation plays a role in S9-mediated reduction of bacterial cytotoxicity.
3.Dynamic headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry characterization of volatiles produced in fish oil enriched mayonnaise during storage.
Hartvigsen K1, Lund P, Hansen LF, Holmer G. J Agric Food Chem. 2000 Oct;48(10):4858-67.
Protection against lipid oxidation and formation of unpleasant fishy and rancid off-flavors in oil-in-water food emulsions, such as fish oil enriched mayonnaise, is difficult to achieve. Volatile profiles from stored mayonnaises with different oil phase compositions were collected using a developed dynamic headspace sampling technique, in which interfering acetic acid was removed in situ with potassium hydroxide, and subsequently 148 volatiles were characterized and monitored by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Multivariate statistics showed correlation between the concentration of 62 volatiles and the fish oil and storage parameters, indicating the formation of lipid oxidation products, which impose fishy off-flavors. Further verification was obtained by gas chromatography/olfactometry, by which, among 78 odors, cis-4-heptenal and trans,cis-2,4-heptadienal were detected as distinct fishy notes. In total, 27 volatiles, including 1-penten-3-one, cis-2-penten-1-ol, cis-3-hexenal, cis-4-heptenal, 1-octen-3-one, 1,cis-5-octadien-3-one, 1-octen-3-ol, trans,cis-2, 4-heptadienal, and trans,cis-2,6-nonadienal, were suggested to contribute to the developed unpleasant fishy and rancid off-flavors.
4.Determining human exposure and sensory detection of odorous compounds released during showering.
Omür-Ozbek P1, Gallagher DL, Dietrich AM. Environ Sci Technol. 2011 Jan 15;45(2):468-73. doi: 10.1021/es1030068. Epub 2010 Dec 8.
Modeling of human exposure to aqueous algal odorants geosmin (earthy), 2-methylisoborneol (musty), and (trans,cis)-2,6-nonadienal (cucumber, fishy), and the solvent trichloroethylene (sweet chemical), was investigated to improve the understanding of water-air transfer by including humans as sensors to detect contaminants. A mass-transfer model was employed to determine indoor air concentrations when water was used for showering under varying conditions (shower stall volume, water and air flow rate, temperature, aqueous odorant concentration, shower duration). Statistical application of multiple linear regression and tree regression were employed to determine critical model parameters. The model predicted that concentrations detectable to the human senses were controlled by temperature, odor threshold, and aqueous concentration for the steady-state model, whereas shower volume, air flow, and water flow are also important for the dynamic model and initial detection of the odorant immediately after the showering is started.