1.Structure-activity relationship study of diphenylamine-based estrogen receptor (ER) antagonists.
Ohta K1, Chiba Y1, Kaise A1, Endo Y2. Bioorg Med Chem. 2015 Feb 15;23(4):861-7. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2014.12.022. Epub 2015 Jan 6.
We have reported the design and synthesis of novel estrogen receptor (ER) agonists with a diphenylamine skeleton, which has several advantages over the formerly used diphenylmethane skeleton for drug development. Here, we confirmed the versatility of the diphenylamine skeleton by designing and synthesizing ER antagonist candidates bearing a basic alkylamino side chain on one of the two phenol groups of the diphenylamine agonist core structure. Among the tested compounds, cyclic alkylamine-containing derivatives showed more potent ER-antagonistic activity than the corresponding acyclic derivatives in cell proliferation assay using the MCF-7 cell line. Compound 5e showed the most potent antiestrogenic activity (IC50: 1.3×10(-7)M), being 10times more potent than tamoxifen.
2.Thermal and mechanical properties of reduced graphene oxide/polyurethane nanocomposite.
Pokharel P, Lee DS. J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2014 Aug;14(8):5718-21.
Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) based polyurethane (PU) nanocomposites have been successfully prepared without using solvent by in-situ polymerization. RGO was derived from microwave (MW) irradiation of graphite oxide (GO) powder prepared by a modified Hummer's method. A minimum amount of poly(tetramethylene glycol) (PTMEG) was added during the dispersion of RGO in a solvent to stabilize the graphene sheets and to prevent RGO from the restacking after the removal of the solvent. After the reaction of RGO with 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI), we obtained the concentrate of RGO in MDI with a minimum amount of PTMEG. Our method facilitated the fine dispersion of RGO in PU elastomers and improved the interfacial strength between RGO and PU. With the incorporation of 2.0 wt% of RGO, the tensile strength and Young's modulus of the PU nanocomposites increased by 30% and 50%, respectively without sacrificing the elongation at break. It was found that the crystalline portion of hard segments of the PU was lowered by the RGO in the nanocomposites.
3.Glutathione reaction products with a chemical allergen, methylene-diphenyl diisocyanate, stimulate alternative macrophage activation and eosinophilic airway inflammation.
Wisnewski AV, Liu J, Colangelo CM. Chem Res Toxicol. 2015 Apr 20;28(4):729-37. doi: 10.1021/tx5005002. Epub 2015 Feb 18.
Isocyanates have been a leading chemical cause of occupational asthma since their utility for generating polyurethane was first recognized over 60 years ago, yet the mechanisms of isocyanate asthma pathogenesis remain unclear. The present study provides in vivo evidence that a GSH mediated pathway underlies asthma-like eosinophilic inflammatory responses to respiratory tract isocyanate exposure. In naïve mice, a mixture of GSH reaction products with the chemical allergen, methylene-diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), induced innate immune responses, characterized by significantly increased airway levels of Chitinase YM-1 and IL-12/IL-23β (but not α) subunit. However, in mice immunologically sensitized to MDI via prior skin exposure, identical GSH-MDI doses induced substantially greater inflammatory responses, including significantly increased airway eosinophil numbers and mucus production, along with IL-12/IL-23β, chitinases, and other indicators of alternative macrophage activation.
4.Photophysics of Auramine-O: electronic structure calculations and nonadiabatic dynamics simulations.
Xie BB1, Xia SH, Chang XP, Cui G. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2016 Jan 7;18(1):403-13. doi: 10.1039/c5cp05312a. Epub 2015 Nov 30.
Diphenylmethane dyes are very useful photoinduced molecular rotors; however, their photophysical mechanisms are still elusive until now. In this work, we adopted combined static electronic structure calculations (MS-CASPT2//CASSCF) and trajectory-based surface-hopping dynamics simulations (OM2/MRCI) to study the S1 excited-state relaxation mechanism of a representative diphenylmethane dye Auramine-O. On the basis of the optimized S1 minima and the computed emission bands, we have for the first time assigned experimentally proposed three transient states (i.e. S1-LE, S1-I1 or S1-I2, and S1-II). Mechanistically, upon irradiation to the S1 state, the system first relaxes to the locally excited S1 minimum (S1-LE). Starting from this point, there exist two kinds of relaxation paths to S1-II. In the sequential path, the system first evolves into S1-I1 or S1-I2 and then runs into S1-II; in the concerted one, the system, bypassing S1-I1 and S1-I2, directly runs into S1-II.