1.Knockdown of ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 1 causes loss of uptake regulation leading to increased N1, N11-bis(ethyl)norspermine (BENSpm) accumulation and toxicity in NCI H157 lung cancer cells.
Fraser AV1, Goodwin AC, Hacker-Prietz A, Sugar E, Woster PM, Casero RA Jr. Amino Acids. 2012 Feb;42(2-3):529-38. doi: 10.1007/s00726-011-1030-z. Epub 2011 Aug 4.
Ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 1 (AZ1) is a major regulatory protein responsible for the regulation and degradation of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). To better understand the role of AZ1 in polyamine metabolism and in modulating the response to anticancer polyamine analogues, a small interfering RNA strategy was used to create a series of stable clones in human H157 non-small cell lung cancer cells that expressed less than 5-10% of basal AZ1 levels. Antizyme 1 knockdown clones accumulated greater amounts of the polyamine analogue N (1),N (11)-bis(ethyl)norspermine (BENSpm) and were more sensitive to analogue treatment. The possibility of a loss of polyamine uptake regulation in the knockdown clones was confirmed by polyamine uptake analysis. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that AZ1 knockdown leads to dysregulation of polyamine uptake, resulting in increased analogue accumulation and toxicity. Importantly, there appears to be little difference between AZ1 knockdown cells and cells with normal levels of AZ1 with respect to ODC regulation, suggesting that another regulatory protein, potentially AZ2, compensates for the loss of AZ1.
2.Overexpression of SSAT by DENSPM treatment induces cell detachment and apoptosis in glioblastoma.
Tian Y1, Wang S, Wang B, Zhang J, Jiang R, Zhang W. Oncol Rep. 2012 Apr;27(4):1227-32. doi: 10.3892/or.2011.1592. Epub 2011 Dec 14.
N1,N11-diethylnorspermine (DENSPM), a polyamine analog that induces expression of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) and reduces polyamine levels in eukaryotic cells, has demonstrated anticancer effects in many cancer cell types. Gene expression of SSAT after treatment with DENSPM was measured in both U87 and LN229 cells using real-time PCR. Induction of SSAT mRNA using DENSPM resulted in significantly higher levels in U87 cells than in LN229 cells. Furthermore, DENSPM caused marked cell detachment in U87 cells and to a lesser extent in LN229 cells. We hypothesized that elevated SSAT expression plays a key role in DENSPM-induced cell detachment in glioblastoma cells. To investigate whether forced expression of SSAT would lead to reduced cell adhesion and increased cell detachment, we transfected a PCMV-SSAT plasmid into LN229 cells and observed significant cell detachment.
3.Lack of functional p53 renders DENSpm-induced autophagy and apoptosis in time dependent manner in colon cancer cells.
Çoker-Gürkan A1, Arisan ED, Obakan P, Palavan-Unsal N. Amino Acids. 2015 Jan;47(1):87-100. doi: 10.1007/s00726-014-1851-7. Epub 2014 Oct 14.
Polyamines (PAs), such as putrescine, spermidine and spermine, are alkyl-amines that are essential for cell growth, proliferation, differentiation and cancer progression in eukaryotic cells. A designed PA analogue; DENSpm, induces cell cycle arrest, inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in melanoma, breast, prostate, lung and colon cancer cells. Although the mechanism by which DENSpm induces apoptosis has been examined, the effect of DENSpm on autophagy has not been investigated yet. Therefore, in this study, our objective was to determine the role of p53 in the DENSpm-induced autophagy/apoptotic regulation in a time-dependent manner in colon cancer cells. Exposure of HCT 116 colon cancer cells to DENSpm decreased cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. However, the p53 mutant, SW480, and deficient HCT 116 p53(-/-) cells were more resistant to DENSpm treatment compared to HCT 116 p53(+/+) cells. The resistant profile caused by p53 defect also caused a cell type-specific response to PA pool depletion and SSAT overexpression.
4.Synthetic polyamines activating autophagy: effects on cancer cell death.
Minarini A1, Zini M, Milelli A, Tumiatti V, Marchetti C, Nicolini B, Falconi M, Farruggia G, Cappadone C, Stefanelli C. Eur J Med Chem. 2013 Sep;67:359-66. doi: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2013.06.044. Epub 2013 Jul 1.
The ability of symmetrically substituted long chain polymethylene tetramines, methoctramine (1) and its analogs 2-4 to kill cancer cells was studied. We found that an elevated cytotoxicity was correlated with a 12 methylene chain length separating the inner amine functions (6-12-6 carbon backbone), together with the introduction of diphenylethyl moieties on the terminal nitrogen atoms (compound 4) of a tetramine backbone. Compound 4 triggered dissipation of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and increased intracellular peroxide levels, leading to a caspase-independent HeLa cell death associated with a rapid activation of autophagy. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine inhibited cell death and activation of autophagy, indicating a link between oxidative stress and autophagy. Autophagy was rapidly triggered even by tetramines 2 and 3, indicating that is related to their polyamine structure. Autophagy did not protect HeLa cells against cytotoxicity elicited by compound 4.