1.Different impact of NNRTI and PI-including HAART on bone mineral density loss in HIV-infected patients.
Madeddu G1, Spanu A, Solinas P, Babudieri S, Calia GM, Lovigu C, Mannazzu M, Nuvoli S, Piras B, Bagella P, Mura MS, Madeddu G. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2015 Dec;19(23):4576-89.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the changes in Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and bone remodelling markers in a group of HIV patients treated with HAART and controlled in a long follow-up and to identify possible risk factors for accelerated bone mass loss.
2.Joint Degradation in a Monkey Model of Collagen-Induced Arthritis: Role of Cathepsin K Based on Biochemical Markers and Histological Evaluation.
Tanaka M1, Yamada H2, Nishikawa S2, Mori H2, Ochi Y2, Horai N3, Li M4, Amizuka N5. Int J Rheumatol. 2016;2016:8938916. doi: 10.1155/2016/8938916. Epub 2016 Feb 2.
The role of cathepsin K in joint degradation in a model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in cynomolgus monkey was examined using biochemical markers and histology. Joint swelling, urinary C-telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II), deoxypyridinoline (DPD), and N- and C-telopeptides of type I collagen (NTX and CTX-I, resp.) were analyzed. Immunohistochemistry of type II collagen, cathepsin K, and CTX-II were performed using joints. Joint swelling reached peak on day 42 and continued at this level. The CTX-II level peaked on day 28 and declined thereafter, while CTX-I, NTX, and DPD reached plateau on day 43. Joint swelling was positively correlated with CTX-II increases on days 20 and 42/43, with increases in CTX-I and NTX/Cr on days 42/43 and 84, and with DPD increases throughout the study period. Intense cathepsin K staining was observed in osteoclasts and in articular cartilage and synovial tissue in arthritic joints. CTX-II was present in the superficial layer of articular cartilage in CIA monkeys.
3.Bone metabolism dysfunction mediated by the increase of proinflammatory cytokines in chronic HIV infection.
de Menezes EG1,2, Machado AA3, Barbosa F Jr4, de Paula FJ3, Navarro AM3. J Bone Miner Metab. 2016 Mar 29. [Epub ahead of print]
Despite the efficacy of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the control of viral replication, the current challenge is to decrease the chronic inflammatory status and toxicity of the antiretroviral drugs that contribute to increase the risk of metabolic complications. To verify the influence of proinflammatory cytokines on bone metabolism mediated by chronic HIV infection, a cross-sectional study was conducted with 50 HIV-infected adult men treated or not treated with ART. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed to assess bone mineral density. Biochemical analysis were performed of IL-6, TNF-α, osteocalcin, PTH, 25-OH-D, total calcium, albumin, 24 h urinary calcium, and urinary deoxypyridinoline. The participants not treated with ART exhibited higher values of IL-6 and TNF-α than the participants treated with ART for more than 2 years. The TNF-α values were higher in the participants treated with ART for <2 years than in participants treated with ART for more than 2 years (p < 0.