1.[Effect of flavonoids from Sophora flavescens in aging mice induced by D-galactos].
Fan HY, Gu RS, Ren K, Wang YC, Yao Z, Shen N, Liu SB. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2015 Nov;40(21):4240-4.
To investigate the effect of flavonoids from Sophora flavescens in aging mice induced by D-galactose and its mechanism. Totally 60 mice were randomly divided into six groups: the control group, the model group, the piracetam group (positive control group) and flavonoids from S. flavescens low, medium and high doses groups. Except for the control group, all of the rest groups were subcutaneously injected with D-galactose (160 mg x kg(-1)) for successively 30 days to establish the sub-acute senescent model. Meanwhile, flavonoids from S. flavescens low, medium and high doses groups were respectively administered with 150, 300 and 600 mg xkg-('1)of flavonoids from S. flavescens for 30 days. The learning and memory abilities of mice were determined by avoiding darkness ex-eriment and jumping stair experiment. The contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) tumor necrosis factor-aα NF-aα the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) Na'(+)K'(+)-ATPase and Ca2(+ )-ATPase in the brain of mice were deter-ined respectively after the behavioral experiments.
2.Racemic oleracein E increases the survival rate and attenuates memory impairment in D-galactose/NaNO2-induced senescent mice.
Wang PP1, Sun HX2, Liu CJ3, Hu MH2, He XQ4, Yue S2, Jiao ZZ2, Xiang L5. Phytomedicine. 2016 May 15;23(5):460-7. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2016.02.014. Epub 2016 Mar 3.
BACKGROUND: Compounds that possess a pyrrolidone skeleton are a rich resource for the discovery of nootropic drugs. Oleracein E (OE), which possesses both tetrahydroisoquinoline and pyrrolidone skeletons, was first isolated from the medicinal plant Portulaca oleracea L. and was thought to be an active component in the cognition-improvement effect induced by this herb. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of OE on cognitive impairment in senescent mice and its underlying mechanism of action.
3.Guar gum as a promising starting material for diverse applications: A review.
Thombare N1, Jha U2, Mishra S2, Siddiqui MZ3. Int J Biol Macromol. 2016 Apr 1;88:361-372. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2016.04.001. [Epub ahead of print]
Guar gum is the powdered endosperm of the seeds of the Cyamopsis tetragonolobus which is a leguminous crop. The endosperm contains a complex polysaccharide called galactomannan, which is a polymer of d-galactose and d-mannose. This hydroxyl group rich polymer when added to water forms hydrogen bonding imparting significant viscosity and thickening to the solution. Due to its thickening, emulsifying, binding and gelling properties, quick solubility in cold water, wide pH stability, film forming ability and biodegradability, it finds applications in large number of industries. In last few decades a lot of research has been done on guar gum to fit it into particular application, as such or by its structural modifications. This review gives an overview of the nature, chemistry and properties of guar gum and discusses recent developments in its modifications and applications in major industries like hydraulic fracturing, explosives, food, agriculture, textile, paper, cosmetics, bioremediation, drug delivery, medical and pharmaceuticals.
4.Deacetylation of Fungal Exopolysaccharide Mediates Adhesion and Biofilm Formation.
Lee MJ1, Geller AM1, Bamford NC2, Liu H3, Gravelat FN4, Snarr BD4, Le Mauff F4, Chabot J4, Ralph B4, Ostapska H4, Lehoux M4, Cerone RP1, Baptista SD1, Vinogradov E5, Stajich JE6, Filler SG3, Howell PL2, Sheppard DC7. MBio. 2016 Apr 5;7(2). pii: e00252-16. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00252-16.
The moldAspergillus fumigatuscauses invasive infection in immunocompromised patients. Recently, galactosaminogalactan (GAG), an exopolysaccharide composed of galactose andN-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), was identified as a virulence factor required for biofilm formation. The molecular mechanisms underlying GAG biosynthesis and GAG-mediated biofilm formation were unknown. We identified a cluster of five coregulated genes that were dysregulated in GAG-deficient mutants and whose gene products share functional similarity with proteins that mediate the synthesis of the bacterial biofilm exopolysaccharide poly-(β1-6)-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (PNAG). Bioinformatic analyses suggested that the GAG cluster geneagd3encodes a protein containing a deacetylase domain. Because deacetylation ofN-acetylglucosamine residues is critical for the function of PNAG, we investigated the role of GAG deacetylation in fungal biofilm formation. Agd3 was found to mediate deacetylation of GalNAc residues within GAG and render the polysaccharide polycationic.