1.Protective effects of l-glutamine against toxicity of deltamethrin in the cerebral tissue.
Varol S1, Özdemir HH1, Çevik MU1, Altun Y1, Ibiloğlu I1, Ekinci A1, Ibiloğlu AO1, Balduz M1, Arslan D1, Tekin R1, Aktar F1, Aluçlu MU1. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2016 Apr 21;12:1005-11. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S104011. eCollection 2016.
BACKGROUND: Deltamethrin (DLM) is a broad-spectrum synthetic dibromo-pyrethroid pesticide that is widely used for agricultural and veterinary purposes. However, human exposure to the pesticide leads to neurotoxicity. Glutamine is one of the principal, free intracellular amino acids and may also be an antioxidant. This study was undertaken in order to examine the neuroprotective and antioxidant potential of l-glutamine against DLM toxicity in female Wistar albino rats.
2.Differential effects in CGRPergic, nitrergic, and VIPergic myenteric innervation in diabetic rats supplemented with 2% L-glutamine.
Pereira RV1, Linden DR2, Miranda-Neto MH1, Zanoni JN1. An Acad Bras Cienc. 2016 Apr 29. pii: S0001-37652016005004113. [Epub ahead of print]
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 2% L-glutamine supplementation on myenteric innervation in the ileum of diabetic rats, grouped as follows: normoglycemic (N); normoglycemic supplemented with L-glutamine (NG); diabetic (D); and diabetic supplemented with L-glutamine (DG). The ileums were subjected to immunohistochemical techniques to localize neurons immunoreactive to HuC/D protein (HuC/D-IR) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase enzyme (nNOS-IR) and to analyze varicosities immunoreactive to vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP-IR) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP-IR). L-Glutamine in the DG group (i) prevented the increase in the cell body area of nNOS-IR neurons, (ii) prevented the increase in the area of VIP-IR varicosities, (iii) did not prevent the loss of HuC/D-IR and nNOS-IR neurons per ganglion, and (iv) reduced the size of CGRP-IR varicosities. L-Glutamine in the NG group reduced (i) the number of HuC/D-IR and nNOS-IR neurons per ganglion, (ii) the cell body area of nNOS-IR neurons, and (iii) the size of VIP-IR and CGRP-IR varicosities.