[D-Ala2]-Leucine enkephalin - CAS 64963-01-5
Catalog number: B0084-040423
Category: Inhibitor
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Molecular Formula:
Molecular Weight:
Opioid Receptor
[D-Ala2]-Leucine enkephalin is a delta opioid agonist used to study the signaling pathway of delta opioid receptors.
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B0084-040423 1 g $388 In stock
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Brife Description:
delta opioid agonist
Leuphasyl; NSC 374895; NSC-374895; NSC374895; DALLE; (D-Ala2)-Leu-Enkephalin; [D-Ala2]-Leu-Enkephalin
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1.Stability of oxymethyl-modified coumarinic acid cyclic prodrugs of diastereomeric opioid peptides in biological media from various animal species including human.
Liederer BM;Borchardt RT J Pharm Sci. 2005 Oct;94(10):2198-206.
In vitro stability studies of oxymethyl-modified coumarinic acid (OMCA) cyclic prodrugs of the diastereomeric opioid peptides DADLE ([D-Ala2,D-Leu5]-Enk, H-Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-Phe-D-Leu-OH), [Ala2,D-Leu5]-Enk (H-Tyr-Ala-Gly-Phe-D-Leu-OH), [D-Ala2,Leu5]-Enk (H-Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-Phe-Leu-OH), and [Ala2,Leu5]-Enk (H-Tyr-Ala-Gly-Phe-Leu-OH) were conducted to evaluate how the chirality of specific amino acid residues (Ala2 and Leu5) in the peptide portion affects their bioconversion by esterases. The stability studies were conducted at 37 degrees C in plasma and tissue homogenates (liver and brain) from five animal species (rat, mouse, canine, guinea pig, and hamster) and human in an attempt to identify an animal species that had a "prodrug bioconversion profile" comparable to that of humans. Initially, the total esterase activity in these biological media was measured using p-nitrophenyl butyrate (PNPB) as a substrate. By repeating this activity assay in the presence of paraoxon, a potent esterase B inhibitor, it was possible to estimate the relative amounts of esterases B and esterases A/C in a biological sample. Stability studies of the cyclic prodrugs were carried out under identical conditions, that is, in the presence and absence of paraoxon.
2.R(-)-4-(3-Isothiocyanatopyrrolidin-1-yl)-7-(N,N-dimethylaminosulfonyl)-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole, a fluorescent chiral tagging reagent: sensitive resolution of chiral amines and amino acids by reversed-phase liquid chromatography.
Toyo'oka T;Jin D;Tomoi N;Oe T;Hiranuma H Biomed Chromatogr. 2001 Feb;15(1):56-67.
The usefulness of R(-)-4-(3-isothiocyanatopyrrolidin-1-yl)-7-(N,N-dimethylaminosulfonyl)-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole [R(-)-DBD-PyNCS], a fluorescent chiral tagging reagent, for the determination of racemic amines and amino acids, was studied. The reagent reacted with beta-blockers selected as representative secondary amines to produce corresponding fluorescent diastereomers (excitation at 460 nm and emission at 550 nm). The yields of the derivatization reaction were dependent on the stereostructure arround the NH group in beta-blockers. The resulting diastereomers were completely separated with single chromatographic run using linear gradient elutions by reversed-phase chromatography. R(-)-DBD-PyNCS was also applied to the determination of DL-amino acid, considered to be one of the primary amines, in human urine and foodstuffs. DL-amino acids tested equally reacted with the reagent, and the thiocarbamoyl derivatives were separated with an ODS column. The epimerization during the derivatization reaction was negligible judging from the resolution of opposite diastereomers on the chromatogram. The occurence of D-amino acids (D-Ala, D-Ser, D-Asp and/or D-Glu) was identified in the samples tested.
3.Transferred nuclear Overhauser effect analyses of membrane-bound enkephalin analogues by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance: correlation between activities and membrane-bound conformations.
Milon A;Miyazawa T;Higashijima T Biochemistry. 1990 Jan 9;29(1):65-75.
Leu-enkephalin, [D-Ala2]Leu-enkephalin, and [D-Ala2]Leu-enkephalinamide (agonists) and [L-Ala2]Leu-enkephalin (inactive analogue) bind to lipid bilayer consisting of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine. The conformations that these compounds assume, once bound to perdeuterated phospholipid bilayer, have been shown to be unique, as shown by the transferred nuclear Overhauser effect (TRNOE) of 1H NMR spectroscopy. In addition, their location in the bilayer was analyzed by TRNOE in the presence of spin-labeled phospholipids. These analyses showed a clear relationship between the activity and the peptide-membrane interaction. The three active peptides, when bound to membranes, adopt the same conformation, characterized by a type II' beta-turn around Gly3-Phe4 and a gamma-turn around Gly2 (or D-Ala2). The inactive analogue, [L-Ala2]Leu-enkephalin, displayed a completely different TRNOE pattern corresponding to a different conformation in the membrane-bound state. The tyrosine residue of the active compounds is not inserted into the interior of membrane, but it is inserted into the bilayer for the L-Ala2 analogue. According to these results, [L-Ala2]Leu-enkephalin may be explained to be inactive because the mode of binding to the membranes is different from that of active compounds.
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CAS 64963-01-5 [D-Ala2]-Leucine enkephalin

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