1.Domibacillus antri sp. nov., isolated from the soil of a cave.
Xu D1, Wang L2, Wang G3, Zheng S4. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2016 Apr 13. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.001080. [Epub ahead of print]
A Gram-reaction-positive, strictly aerobic, capsule-forming, motile, and rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain XD80T, was isolated from the soil of a cave in south-central China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain XD80T was closely related to Domibacillus iocasae CCTCC AB 2015183T (98.66 % sequence similarity), D. robiginosus DSM 25058T (97.83 %), D. tundrae KCTC 33549T (97.70 %), D. enclensis CCTCC AB 2011121T (97.21 %), and D. indicus DSM 28032T (96.96 %). Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain XD80T and D. iocasae CCTCC AB 2015183T, D. robiginosus DSM 25058T, D. tundrae KCTC 33549T and D. enclensis CCTCC AB 2011121T were 37.4 %, 53.8 %, 53.6 % and 52.7 %, respectively. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, aminophospholipid and two unknown phospholipids. The predominant fatty acids (˃5 %) were iso-C15:0 (37.3 %), anteiso-C15:0 (10.8 %), C16:0 (10.4 %), iso-C17:0 (10.
2.Formation of isomers of anionic hemiesters of sugars and carbonic acid in aqueous medium.
Dos Santos VB1, Vidal DT1, Francisco KJ1, Ducati LC1, do Lago CL2. Carbohydr Res. 2016 Apr 12;428:18-22. doi: 10.1016/j.carres.2016.04.007. [Epub ahead of print]
Hemiesters of carbonic acid can be freely formed in aqueous media containing HCO3-/CO2 and mono- or poly-hydroxy compounds. Herein, 13C NMR spectroscopy was used to identify isomers formed in aqueous solutions of glycerol (a prototype compound) and seven carbohydrates, as well as to estimate the equilibrium constant of formation (Keq). Although both isomers are formed, glycerol 1-carbonate corresponds to 90% of the product. While fructose and ribose form an indistinct mixture of isomers, the anomers of d-glucopyranose 6-carbonate correspond to 74% of the eight isomers of glucose carbonate that were detected. The values of Keq for the disaccharides sucrose (4.3) and maltose (4.2) are about twice the values for the monosaccharides glucose (2.0) and fructose (2.3). Ribose (Keq = 0.89)-the only sugar without a significant concentration of a species containing a -CH2OH group in an aqueous solution-resulted in the smallest Keq. On the basis of the Keq value and the concentrations of HCO3- and glucose in blood, one can anticipate a concentration of 2-4 µmol L-1 for glucose 6-carbonate, which corresponds to ca.
3.Eucommia ulmoides extracts prevent the formation of advanced glycation end products.
Sugawa H1, Ohno RI1, Shirakawa JI1, Nakajima A2, Kanagawa A2, Hirata T3, Ikeda T4, Moroishi N1, Nagai M1, Nagai R1. Food Funct. 2016 Apr 15. [Epub ahead of print]
Proteins non-enzymatically react with reducing sugars to form advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), resulting in the induction of protein denaturation. Because the levels of AGE increase with age and are elevated in age-related diseases, such as diabetes and atherosclerosis, the intake of compound(s) that inhibit the formation of AGEs by daily meal may represent a potential strategy for preventing age-related diseases. In this study, we measured the inhibitory effects of several Eucommia ulmoides extracts on the formation of AGEs, Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) and Nω-(carboxymethyl)arginine (CMA). Although a crude extract obtained from E. ulmoides bark is widely used as herbal medicine, E. ulmoides leaf extract (ELE) inhibited CML and CMA formation more effectively during the incubation of gelatin with ribose. Therefore, the inhibitory effects of compounds present in ELE on CML and CMA formation were studied. As a result, isoquercetin showed the strongest inhibitory effect of all the tested ELE components.
4.Cultured networks of excitatory projection neurons and inhibitory interneurons for studying human cortical neurotoxicity.
Xu JC1, Fan J1, Wang X1, Eacker SM1, Kam TI1, Chen L1, Yin X1, Zhu J2, Chi Z1, Jiang H1, Chen R1, Dawson TM3, Dawson VL4. Sci Transl Med. 2016 Apr 6;8(333):333ra48. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aad0623.
Translating neuroprotective treatments from discovery in cell and animal models to the clinic has proven challenging. To reduce the gap between basic studies of neurotoxicity and neuroprotection and clinically relevant therapies, we developed a human cortical neuron culture system from human embryonic stem cells or human inducible pluripotent stem cells that generated both excitatory and inhibitory neuronal networks resembling the composition of the human cortex. This methodology used timed administration of retinoic acid to FOXG1(+)neural precursor cells leading to differentiation of neuronal populations representative of the six cortical layers with both excitatory and inhibitory neuronal networks that were functional and homeostatically stable. In human cortical neuronal cultures, excitotoxicity or ischemia due to oxygen and glucose deprivation led to cell death that was dependent onN-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, nitric oxide (NO), and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) (a cell death pathway called parthanatos that is distinct from apoptosis, necroptosis, and other forms of cell death).