1.[Protective effect of Angelica sinensis polysaccharides on subacute renal damages induced by D-galactose in mice and its mechanism].
Fan YL, Xia JY, Jia DY, Zhang MS, Zhang YY, Wang L, Huang GN, Wang YP. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2015 Nov;40(21):4229-33.
To explore the protective effect of Angelica sinensis polysaccharides(ASP) on subacute renal damages induced by D-galactose in mice and its mechanism. Male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into 3 groups, with 10 mice in each group. The D-galactose model group was subcutaneously injected with D-galactose (120 mg x kg(-1)), qd x 42; the ASP + D-galactose model group was intraperitoneally injected with ASP since the 8th day of the replication of the D-galactose model, qd x 35; and the normal control group was subcutaneously injected with saline at the same dose and time. On the 2nd day of after the injection, the peripheral blood was collected to measure the content of BUN, Crea, UA, Cys-C; paraffin sections were made to observe the renal histomorphology by HE staining; senescence-associated β-g-alactosidase (SA-β-Gal) stain was used to observe the relative optical density (ROD) in renal tissues; transmission electron microscopy was assayed to observe the renal ultrastructure; the renal tissue homogenate was prepared to measure the content of SOD, GSH-PX, MDA; the content of AGEs and 8-OH-dG were measured by ELISA.
2.Protective effect of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) modulator, against behavioral, biochemical and structural damage in experimental models of Alzheimer's disease.
Jayant S1, Sharma BM2, Sharma B3. Brain Res. 2016 Apr 12. pii: S0006-8993(16)30230-X. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2016.04.022. [Epub ahead of print]
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an overwhelming neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by synaptic dysfunction, memory loss, neuro-inflammation and neural cell death. Very few treatments are in hand for the management of AD and they are only concentrating on peculiar aspects. Hence, an immense thrust is required to find utmost therapeutic targets to conquer this condition. This study investigates a potential role of vanillin, a selective agonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) in the experimental models of AD viz. intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) streptozotocin (STZ) and aluminum trichloride (AlCl3)+d-galactose induced AD in mice. The i.c.v. administration of STZ and intraperitoneally administration of AlCl3+d-galactose have significantly impaired learning-memory (Morris water maze and attentional set-shifting test), brain structure (hematoxylin, eosin and Congo red staining), enhanced brain oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance - TBARS and glutathione - GSH), nitrosative stress (nitrite/nitrate), acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE), inflammation (MPO), and calcium levels (Ca++).
3.Deacetylation of Fungal Exopolysaccharide Mediates Adhesion and Biofilm Formation.
Lee MJ1, Geller AM1, Bamford NC2, Liu H3, Gravelat FN4, Snarr BD4, Le Mauff F4, Chabot J4, Ralph B4, Ostapska H4, Lehoux M4, Cerone RP1, Baptista SD1, Vinogradov E5, Stajich JE6, Filler SG3, Howell PL2, Sheppard DC7. MBio. 2016 Apr 5;7(2). pii: e00252-16. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00252-16.
The moldAspergillus fumigatuscauses invasive infection in immunocompromised patients. Recently, galactosaminogalactan (GAG), an exopolysaccharide composed of galactose andN-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), was identified as a virulence factor required for biofilm formation. The molecular mechanisms underlying GAG biosynthesis and GAG-mediated biofilm formation were unknown. We identified a cluster of five coregulated genes that were dysregulated in GAG-deficient mutants and whose gene products share functional similarity with proteins that mediate the synthesis of the bacterial biofilm exopolysaccharide poly-(β1-6)-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (PNAG). Bioinformatic analyses suggested that the GAG cluster geneagd3encodes a protein containing a deacetylase domain. Because deacetylation ofN-acetylglucosamine residues is critical for the function of PNAG, we investigated the role of GAG deacetylation in fungal biofilm formation. Agd3 was found to mediate deacetylation of GalNAc residues within GAG and render the polysaccharide polycationic.
4.[Effect of flavonoids from Sophora flavescens in aging mice induced by D-galactos].
Fan HY, Gu RS, Ren K, Wang YC, Yao Z, Shen N, Liu SB. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2015 Nov;40(21):4240-4.
To investigate the effect of flavonoids from Sophora flavescens in aging mice induced by D-galactose and its mechanism. Totally 60 mice were randomly divided into six groups: the control group, the model group, the piracetam group (positive control group) and flavonoids from S. flavescens low, medium and high doses groups. Except for the control group, all of the rest groups were subcutaneously injected with D-galactose (160 mg x kg(-1)) for successively 30 days to establish the sub-acute senescent model. Meanwhile, flavonoids from S. flavescens low, medium and high doses groups were respectively administered with 150, 300 and 600 mg xkg-('1)of flavonoids from S. flavescens for 30 days. The learning and memory abilities of mice were determined by avoiding darkness ex-eriment and jumping stair experiment. The contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) tumor necrosis factor-aα NF-aα the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) Na'(+)K'(+)-ATPase and Ca2(+ )-ATPase in the brain of mice were deter-ined respectively after the behavioral experiments.