Cynarin - CAS 30964-13-7
Catalog number: 30964-13-7
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1,5-Dicaffeoylquinic acid is a hydroxycinnamic acid and a biologically active chemical constituent of artichoke (Cynara cardunculus). It inhibits taste receptors, making water (and other foods and drinks) seem sweet. It is an ingredient of the drug Sulfad. It has antioxidant and neuroprotective effects.
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Cynarine; (1R,3R,4S,5R)-1,3-Bis[[3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propenoyl]oxy]-4,5-dihydroxycyclohexanecarboxylic acid
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1.Artichoke, cynarin and cyanidin downregulate the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in human coronary smooth muscle cells.
Xia N;Pautz A;Wollscheid U;Reifenberg G;Förstermann U;Li H Molecules. 2014 Mar 24;19(3):3654-68. doi: 10.3390/molecules19033654.
Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) is one of the world's oldest medicinal plants with multiple health benefits. We have previously shown that artichoke leaf extracts and artichoke flavonoids upregulate the gene expression of endothelial-type nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in human endothelial cells. Whereas NO produced by the eNOS is a vasoprotective molecule, NO derived from the inducible iNOS plays a pro-inflammatory role in the vasculature. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of artichoke on iNOS expression in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMC). Incubation of HCASMC with a cytokine mixture led to an induction of iNOS mRNA expression. This iNOS induction was concentration- and time-dependently inhibited by an artichoke leaf extract (1-100 µg/mL, 6 h or 24 h). Consistently, the artichoke leaf extract also reduced cytokine-induced iNOS promoter activation and iNOS protein expression. In addition, treatment of HCASMC with four well-known artichoke compounds (cynarin > cyanidin > luteolin ≈ cynaroside) led to a downregulation iNOS mRNA and protein expression, with cynarin being the most potent one. In conclusion, artichoke contains both eNOS-upregulating and iNOS-downregulating compounds.
2.Activity of artichoke leaf extract on reactive oxygen species in human leukocytes.
Pérez-García F;Adzet T;Cañigueral S Free Radic Res. 2000 Nov;33(5):661-5.
Artichoke leaf extract was studied in human leukocytes for activity against oxidative stress using flow cytometry and dichlorofluorescin diacetate as a fluorescence probe. It produces a concentration-dependent inhibition of oxidative stress when cells are stimulated with agents that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS): hydrogen peroxide, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), and N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP). Cynarin, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, and luteolin, constituents of artichoke leaf extract, also show a concentration-dependent inhibitory activity in the above models, contributing to the antioxidant activity of the extract in human neutrophils.
3.Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Morinda tinctoria Leaves.
Kolli D;Amperayani KR;Parimi U Indian J Pharm Sci. 2015 Mar-Apr;77(2):226-30.
The antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of Morinda tinctoria leaves was evaluated. The successively extracted leaves of Morinda tinctoria using various solvents was analyzed for their total phenolic content. The extracts were subjected to column chromatography for the isolation of bioactive molecules. In vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by employing different assays, including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, nitric oxide scavenging assay and phosphomolybdenum reducing power assay. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging efficacy of hexane extract is significant at higher concentration (500 μg/ml-91.2±0.05%) and the efficacy at lower concentration is more significant for ethyl acetate extract (100 μg/ml - 65.1±0.05%). The total phenolic content was highest in methanol extract (5.30±0.011 μg/mg). Cynarin, a hydroxy cinnamic acid was isolated from chloroform extract; oleuropein, a polyphenolic iridoid was isolated from methanol extract. The results obtained suggeted that Morinda tinctoria leaf extracts possessed antioxidant properties and might offer protection from free radicals. Two compounds, cynarin and oleuropein were reported for the first time from Morinda tinctoria leaves.
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CAS 30964-13-7 Cynarin

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