CPPG - CAS 183364-82-1
Category: Inhibitor
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Molecular Formula:
Molecular Weight:
CPPG is the most potent group II/III mGluR antagonist displaying approximately 20-fold selectivity for group III over group II (IC50 = 2.2 and 46.2 nM, respectively).
Brife Description:
group II/III mGluR antagonist
≥98% by HPLC
(RS)-α-Cyclopropyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine; Cyclopropyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine; 2-amino-2-cyclopropyl-2-(4-phosphonophenyl)acetic acid
Canonical SMILES:
1.Melatonin potentiates rod signals to ON type bipolar cells in fish retina.
Ping Y;Huang H;Zhang XJ;Yang XL J Physiol. 2008 Jun 1;586(11):2683-94. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2008.152959. Epub 2008 Apr 3.
Melatonin is involved in regulation of a variety of physiological functions through activation of specific G-protein coupled receptors. However, the neuromodulatory role of melatonin, released from photoreceptors in the retina, is poorly understood. Here we show that melatonin enhances the sensitivity of the rod signal pathway by potentiating signal transfer from rod photoreceptors to ON bipolar cells (Rod-ON-BCs). Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings showed that melatonin induced a sustained inward current from Rod-ON-BCs, through activation of the melatonin MT2 receptor, which was identified as one mediated by a cGMP-dependent cation channel. Consistent with this, melatonin was found, using immunocytochemistry, to increase intracellular cGMP levels, which was identified due to an inhibition of phosphodiesterase. Physiologically, melatonin potentiated responses of Rod-ON-BCs to simulated light flashes (brief puffs of CPPG, an mGluR6 antagonist, in the presence of l-AP4, an mGluR6 agonist), which was mediated by cGMP-dependent kinase, and increased the amplitude of the scotopic electroretinographic b-wave, a reflection of Rod-ON-BC activity. These results suggest that melatonin, being at a higher level at night, may improve the signal/noise ratio for rod signals in the outer retina by enhancing signal transfer from rods to BCs.
2.Age-related changes in tolerance to the marine algal excitotoxin domoic acid.
Kerr DS;Razak A;Crawford N Neuropharmacology. 2002 Sep;43(3):357-66.
During an incident of toxic mussel poisoning, the epileptogenic excitotoxin domoic acid (DOM) was associated with lasting neurological deficits mainly in older patients (), suggesting supersensitivity to excitotoxins is a feature of brain aging. Here, hippocampal slices from young (3 months) and aged (26-29 months) Sprague Dawley rats were assessed by CA1 field potential analysis before and after preconditioning with DOM. In naïve slices from young animals, DOM produced initial hyperexcitability followed by significant dose-dependent reductions in population spike amplitude during prolonged application. Following toxin washout, only small changes in neuronal activity were evident during a second application of DOM, suggesting that a resistance to the effects of DOM occurs in hippocampal slices which have undergone prior exposure to DOM. This inducible tolerance was not antagonized by the NMDA receptor blockers APV or MK-801, nor was it diminished by the group I, II or III mGluR blockers AIDA, CPPG and EGLU. Likewise, neither the AMPA/KA blocker CNQX nor the VSCC blocker nifedipine were effective in blocking tolerance induction in young slices. Field potential analysis revealed significant age-related reductions in CA1 EPSP strength, population spike amplitude and paired-pulse inhibition, but aged slices did not differ in sensitivity to DOM relative to young.
3.Long-term enhancement of excitatory synaptic inputs to layer V parahippocampal neurons by low frequency stimulation in rat brain slices.
Funahashi M;Matsuo R;Stewart M Neurosci Res. 2002 Jan;42(1):65-77.
Excitatory inputs to layer V neurons of the parasubiculum and medial entorhinal cortex were examined in rat brain slices with intracellular and field potential recordings. Single extracellular stimuli to layer V evoked subthreshold excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) or a long duration (>100 ms) depolarization that sustained high frequency firing. Repetitive stimulation at low frequencies (from 1/10 s to 1/min) induced stable long-lasting decreases in the threshold for firing in individual cells or population events, and also induced stable long-lasting increases in evoked intracellular or field response amplitudes. More stimuli were required to produce the equivalent changes in threshold and amplitude in the presence of MCPG (200 microM). Smaller changes in amplitude, but equivalent changes in threshold were elicited in the presence of CPP (10 microM), or CPPG (20 microM). No changes in threshold or amplitude were detected in the presence of CNQX (10 microM), even when used in combination with picrotoxin (100 microM). EPSP facilitation was enhanced greatly by firing in postsynaptic cells. It is suggested that stable changes in excitatory inputs to layer V parahippocampal neurons involve the activation of NMDA and metabotropic glutamate receptors, but requires AMPA receptor activation and postsynaptic cell firing.
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CAS 183364-82-1 CPPG

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