1.Umbelliferone and esculetin protect against N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.
Subramaniam SR1, Ellis EM1. Cell Biol Int. 2016 Apr 14. doi: 10.1002/cbin.10611. [Epub ahead of print]
N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), a nitrosamine compound, is known to cause liver damage through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in oxidative damage to macromolecules such as DNA, and the consequent development of cancer. The present study examines the protective effects of two antioxidant coumarin compounds umbelliferone (Umb) and esculetin (Esc) against NDEA-induced hepatotoxicity when administered in the diet to male Wistar rats. The results show that treatment with Umb (0.5% w/w) and Esc (0.5% w/w) in the diet for 7 days significantly attenuates NDEA-induced liver damage, lowering serum alanine transaminase (ALT) levels, decreasing hepatic lipid peroxidation, and restoring total glutathione levels. To investigate the mechanism for the observed protective effect, the levels of the key protective enzymes NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), heme oxygenase (HO1) and glutathione S-transferase Pi (GSTP1) were measured by Western blotting following Umb and Esc administration.
2.Traditional Anticoagulants and Hair Loss: A Role for Direct Oral Anticoagulants? A Review of the Literature.
Watras MM1, Patel JP2, Arya R3. Drugs Real World Outcomes. 2016;3:1-6. Epub 2016 Jan 7.
Hair loss is associated with the anticoagulants heparin and warfarin. With the recent availability of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) it is of clinical interest to know if they are implicated with hair loss and/or whether they could be successfully prescribed for patients who suffer from coumarin- or heparin-related alopecia. Initially reports of heparin- and coumarin-associated alopecia available through PubMed and Medline were explored in order to establish the cause of this side effect. Currently there is a lack of unanimity on why anticoagulants cause alopecia. However, timing and presentation strongly suggest that telogen effluvium is part of the process. The observation that both heparins and coumarins cause a similar pattern of hair loss suggests a shared mechanism related to anticoagulant activity. To date, the World Health Organization has received 405 reports of DOAC-associated alopecia through their pharmacovigilance database VigiBase®.
3.Root extract of water dropwort, Oenanthe javanica (Blume) DC, induces protein and gene expression of phase I carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes in HepG2 cells.
Kim JK1, Shin EC2, Park GG3, Kim YJ4, Shin DH5. Springerplus. 2016 Apr 6;5:413. doi: 10.1186/s40064-016-2078-8. eCollection 2016.
BACKGROUND: Cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes are an important phase I enzyme system. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Oenanthe javanica (Blume) DC on CYP1A1 and CYP1A2.
4.An Up-to-Date Review on Cerebral Microbleeds.
Wu Y1, Chen T2. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2016 Apr 13. pii: S1052-3057(16)00147-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2016.03.005. [Epub ahead of print]
BACKGROUND: Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are small cerebrovascular lesions. More and more CMBs have been found in patients with ischemic stroke, dementia, and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, as well as some normal elderly populations. The objective of this study is to summarize the main risk factor, impairment, and therapy of CMBs.