1.Phenotypic Tests for the Detection of β-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae Isolated from Different Environments.
de Oliveira DV1, Van Der Sand ST2. Curr Microbiol. 2016 Apr 12. [Epub ahead of print]
Some bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae family are showing a significant capability to disseminate β-lactams resistance mechanisms among them, and these same mechanisms can be carried out from the hospital environment to superficial water. The aim of this study was to evaluate different phenotypic methods for the detection β-lactamases production by enterobacteria isolated from the anthropogenic environment: hospital wastewater and from a stream that cross the city of Porto Alegre. The applied tests were the modified Hodge test (MHT) and phenotypic tests with the following inhibitors: carbapenemase-phenylboronic acid (APB), metallo-β-lactamase-EDTA, AmpC β-lactamase-cloxacillin, and the confirmatory test for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-clavulanic acid. For this evaluation, 131 isolates were initially subjected to antibiogram using the following antimicrobials: cefotaxime (30 µg), cefpodoxime (10 μg), ceftazidime (30 µg), ertapenem (10 μg), meropenem (10 μg), and aztreonam (30 μg).
2.Biocompatible hybrid silica nanobiocomposites for the efficient delivery of anti-staphylococcal drugs.
Balaure PC1, Popa RA2, Grumezescu AM3, Voicu G1, Rădulescu M4, Mogoantă L5, Bălşeanu TA6, Mogoşanu GD7, Chifiriuc MC8, Bleotu C9, Holban AM10, Bolocan A11. Int J Pharm. 2016 Mar 23. pii: S0378-5173(16)30246-0. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2016.03.037. [Epub ahead of print]
This work reports the non-surfactant templated synthesis and characterization of a new tyrosine-silica/antibiotics (TyR-SiO2/ATBs) nanocomposite, as well as both in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity against the microbial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. The in vitro microbiological tests proved that the obtained nanobiostructure significantly enhance the antimicrobial activity of three commonly used antibiotics against S. aureus (i.e. erythromycin (ERI), gentamicin (GEN), and cloxacillin (CLO)) as revealed by the increased diameters of the growth inhibition zones and the decreased minimal inhibitory concentration values, as well as by the inhibitory effect of sub-lethal antibiotic concentrations on the ability of the respective pathogenic strains to adhere and colonize different substrata. These results, correlated with the lack of toxicity against mesenchymal stem cells along with an appropriate in vivo biodistribution highlight the promising therapeutic potential of this carrier that allows a decrease of the required active doses while significantly lessening the harmful side effects of the medication on the host organism.
3.Surveillance of Quality of Medicines Available in the Nepalese Market: A Study from Kathmandu Valley.
Gyanwali P1, Humagain BR2, Aryal KK1, Pandit A1, Acharya T1, Bista B1, Dhimal M1, Karki KB1. J Nepal Health Res Counc. 2015 Sep;13(31):233-40.
BACKGROUND: Many countries are having problem of substandard and counterfeit drugs which results in life threatening issues, financial loss of consumers and loss in trust on health system. This study is concerned with the assessment of drugs quality available in the Nepalese market.
4.[THE APPLICATION OF SELECTIVE CHROMOGENIC AGAR FOR DETECTING ENTEROBACTERIA WITH PRODUCTION OF BETA-LACTAMASES].
Korobova AG, Frolova LN, Kliasova GA. Klin Lab Diagn. 2015 Nov;60(11):53-7.
The detection of enterobacteria with production of beta-lactamases of extended spectrum in selective chromogenic agar was analyzed The results ofdetection of beta-lactamases of extended spectrum was compared with "double disc" technique. The smears from mucous membrane of guttur and rectum from patients were analyzed in parallel on solid growth agar (Endo or Mac Conkey) and on selective agar CHROMagartm ESBL (CHROMagar France). The production of beta-lactamases of extended spectrum was confirmed using "double discs" technique. To exclude hyper-production of ampC beta-lactamases E-test was applied containing cefotetan and cefotetan with cloxacillin. The sampling consisted of 1552 samples from patients. The study permitted to isolate 1243 strains of enterobacteria on agar Endo or Mac Conkey and 409 strains of enterobacteria on selective agar CHROMagartm ESBL (Escherichia coli n = 226, Klebsiella pneumoniae n = 105, enterobacter spp. n = 35, Citrobacter spp.