1. Research progress in electroanalytical techniques for determination of antimalarial drugs in pharmaceutical and biological samples
Neeta Thapliyal,* Tirivashe E. Chiwunze, Rajshekhar Karpoormath,*. RSC Adv.,2016, 6,57580–57602
Clindamycin. An antibiotic belonging to lincosamide class of drugs, clindamycin (CM) is basically used to treat infections related to anaerobic bacteria, including infections of the skin, soft tissue, respiratory tract, peritonitis, and bone and joint infections. It also shows antimalarial activities and is recommended in combination with Qn or ARTS for eﬀective treatment of severe or uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Being a slow-acting drug, it is rarely advised as monotherapy. CM is well-tolerated having mild and transient side eﬀects.
2. Recent developments in the determination of residual solvents in pharmaceutical products by microextraction methods
Majid Mirmoghaddam, Massoud Kaykhaii* and Hossein Yahyavi. Anal. Methods,2015, 7,8511–8523
The mixture will then be centrifuged to separate the extracting organic solvent that will then be injected into the analytical system for analysis. Owing to the prominent merits of DLLME especially its simplicity, and high enrichment factor, this technique is extensively accepted and has been successfully applied in the preconcentration of diﬀerent target compounds in aqueous samples. Farajzadeh et al. reported for the first time the application of a DLLME procedure in the determination of five Class 1 product residual solvents in pharmaceuticals. 500 mg of cefepime, ceftriaxone-Na, clindamycin hydrochloride, erythromycin, and amoxicillin trihydrate were dissolved in 5 mL of deionized water (cefepime, ceftriaxone-Na, and clindamycin hydrochloride) or in 0.5 M NaOH (erythromycin and amoxicillin trihydrate) and were used as sample solutions. DMF and 1,2-DBE were used as dispersive and extraction solvents, respectively. Taking 500 mg of the sample, the limits of detection for the tested pharmaceuticals were found to be 0.11, 0.03, 0.05, 0.05, and 0.006 mgg-1 for carbon tetrachloride, 1,1-dichloroethene, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and benzene, respectively, which are considerably much lower than their permissible limits in pharmaceuticals.
3. Determination of multi-class antimicrobial residues in soil by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
Kui Bian, YaHong Liu, ZongNan Wang, Tong Zhou, XuQin Song, FangYu Zhang and LiMin He*. RSC Adv.,2015, 5,27584–27593
Blank soil samples were spiked with 100 mL of 0.2 mg L-1 (each) mixed working standard solution to evaluate the mean recoveries based on the mentioned extractive method above. The recoveries are summarized in Fig. 1. The results demonstrate that good yields (more than 80%) were obtained only for SAs, clindamycin, roxithromycin and tiamulin when using the M1 system, however, the recoveries of the other compounds were very low (most analytes less than 20%). Salvia et al. suggested that the acetate-based method could result in better recoveries, particularly for veterinary antimicrobials such as sulfonamides and macrolides. Therefore, the M2 and M3 systems were also chosen as the extraction solvent. The results show that the high recoveries (70% above) were obtained for major target analytes such as SAs, MLs and LAs. However, the measured recovery ratios of 4 TCs and 6 FQs were all below 60%, and the recoveries of the ten analytes obtained by the M2 were slightly lower than those by the M3 (the addition of Na2EDTA).
4. Application of the Stern-Volmer equation for studying the spectroﬂuorimetric quenching reaction of eosin with clindamycin hydrochloride in its pure form and pharmaceutical preparations
M. E. K. Wahba,* N. El-Enany and F. Belal. Anal. Methods,2015, 7, 10445–10451
Clindamycin hydrochloride (CLD); (methyl 7-chloro-6, 7, 8-trideoxy-6-(1-methyl-trans-4-propyl-L-2-pyrrolidinecarboxamido)-1-thio-L-threo-a-D-galacto-octopyranoside monohydrochloride), is a lincosamide antibiotic that is highly eﬃcient against Grampositive and Gram-negative anaerobic pathogens. It is also eﬀective against Gram-positive aerobes through the inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis and has been widely used as an antimicrobial in pregnant and non-pregnant patients. Topical clindamycin is used for the treatment of acne vulgaris, and typically leads to suppression of cutaneous propionic-bacterium acnes. The studied drug is oﬃcial in both the United States Pharmacopoeia and the British Pharmacopoeia.