1.Synergism between carvacrol or thymol increases the antimicrobial efficacy of soy sauce with no sensory impact.
Moon H1, Rhee MS2. Int J Food Microbiol. 2016 Jan 18;217:35-41. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2015.10.009. Epub 2015 Oct 22.
Here, we examined the antimicrobial effects of soy sauce containing essential oils (EOs) against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes at 22°C and 4°C. To screen a variety of combined effects, soy sauce was mixed with six different EOs (carvacrol, thymol, eugenol, trans-cinnamaldehyde, β-resorcylic acid, and vanillin), each at a concentration of 1mM for 10 min. None of the oils showed bactericidal activity when used alone. Soy sauce combined with carvacrol and thymol induced the greatest antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria; therefore, these oils were further tested at 0.25, 0.5, and 1mM (0.0039%, 0.0078%, and 0.0157%) for 1, 5, and 10 min at 4°C and 22°C. In addition, sensory evaluation of soy sauce containing each EO at 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2mM was performed using the nine point hedonic test. Carvacrol or thymol (1mM) eliminated all the test bacteria (initial population, 7.0-7.5logCFU/ml) in 1-5 min at 22°C and within 10 min at 4°C.
2.Automated microwave double resonance spectroscopy: A tool to identify and characterize chemical compounds.
Martin-Drumel MA1, McCarthy MC1, Patterson D2, McGuire BA3, Crabtree KN4. J Chem Phys. 2016 Mar 28;144(12):124202. doi: 10.1063/1.4944089.
Owing to its unparalleled structural specificity, rotational spectroscopy is a powerful technique to unambiguously identify and characterize volatile, polar molecules. We present here a new experimental approach, automated microwave double resonance (AMDOR) spectroscopy, to rapidly determine the rotational constants of these compounds without a priori knowledge of elemental composition or molecular structure. This task is achieved by rapidly acquiring the classical (frequency vs. intensity) broadband spectrum of a molecule using chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave (FTMW) spectroscopy and subsequently analyzing it in near real-time using complementary cavity FTMW detection and double resonance. AMDOR measurements provide a unique "barcode" for each compound from which rotational constants can be extracted. To illustrate the power of this approach, AMDOR spectra of three aroma compounds - trans-cinnamaldehyde, α-, and β-ionone - have been recorded and analyzed.
3.Formulation of Granules for Site-Specific Delivery of an Antimicrobial Essential Oil to the Animal Intestinal Tract.
Ma YH1, Wang Q2, Gong J2, Wu XY3. J Pharm Sci. 2016 Mar;105(3):1124-33. doi: 10.1016/j.xphs.2015.10.001. Epub 2015 Dec 23.
Owing to proliferation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, the use of antibiotics for livestock growth promotion is banned in many countries and alternatives to in-feed antibiotics are needed. Cinnamon essential oil exhibits strong in vitro antibacterial activity; however, direct addition of essential oils to animal feed has limited practicality due to their high volatility, odor, fast decomposition, and poor availability in the lower intestines. To solve these problems, we formulated trans-cinnamaldehyde (CIN) with an adsorbent powder and fatty acid via a melt-solidification technique. Core granules of an optimized composition contained up to 48% wt/wt CIN. The granules were then coated with an enteric polymer to impart site-specific release of CIN. CIN was mostly retained in simulated gastric fluid and released rapidly (>80% under 2 h) in simulated intestinal fluids. Rapid CIN autoxidation into cinnamic acid was inhibited by adding 1% vol/vol eugenol, which maintained CIN stability for at least 1 y.
4.Essential oil of Cinnamon exerts anti-cancer activity against head and neck squamous cell carcinoma via attenuating epidermal growth factor receptor - tyrosine kinase.
Yang XQ1, Zheng H, Ye Q, Li RY, Chen Y. J BUON. 2015 Nov-Dec;20(6):1518-25.
PURPOSE: Impressed by the exceptional anticancer activity of cinnamon, the present study was conducted to elucidate the anticancer potential of essential oil of Cinnamon (EOC).