1. Antimicrobial effect of photodynamic therapy using a highly pure chlorin e6
Jong-Hwan Park & Yeon-Hee Moon & Iel-Soo Bang & Yong-Chul Kim & Soo-A Kim & Sang-Gun Ahn & Jung-Hoon Yoon. Lasers Med Sci (2010) 25:705–710
At present, chlorin e6 (Ce6) has been widely used as a second-generation photosensitizer. The main advantages of chlorin e6 are its low toxicity, easy synthesis and production, fast and sufficiently selective accumulation in target tissue, and high photosensitizing efficacy . For these reasons, many researchers have made efforts to find more-effective and low-cost procedures for preparation of a pure form of chlorin e6 with high yield
2. Formation of self-assembled quantum dot–chlorin e6 complex: inﬂuence of nanoparticles phospholipid coating
V. Karabanovas • A. Skripka • J. Valanciunaite • R. Kubiliute • V. Poderys • R. Rotomskis. J Nanopart Res (2014) 16:2508
The modiﬁcation of QDs with phospholipids containing saturated and unsaturated fatty acids as well as complexation with photosensitizer chlorin e6 was investigated by spectroscopic techniques. We have found that QDs could be successfully solubilized after modiﬁcation with PEG–DPPE, PEG–DOPE phospholipids and mixing of DOPC with either PEG–DPPE or PEG–DOPE. The modiﬁcation of QDs surface with DOPC:PEG–DOPE phospholipid mixture showed long-term colloidal stability in aqueous solution (several months). The spectroscopic results presented in this study indicated that photosensitizer Ce6 binds only to QDs modiﬁed with unsaturated phospholipids. The calculated FRET efﬁciency between QDs–PEG–DOPE and Ce6 within the complex was about 45 %. It was observed that QDs coated with PEG–DOPE exhibit highest FRET efﬁciency although colloidal stability is low. Modiﬁcation of QDs with additional DOPC lipids produces more stable solution; however, the observed FRET efﬁciency in such case was lower.This indicates that composition of lipid coating inﬂuences both FRET efﬁciency and colloidal stability of QDs.
3. Singlet oxygen-generating from ﬂuorescence probes based on denatured bovine serum albumin-conjugated CdTe quantum dots and photosensitizer Chlorin e6
Sheng-Mei Wu • Xiao-Juan Sun • Li-Li Wang • Meng-Ying Fei • Zheng-Yu Yan. J Nanopart Res (2014) 16:2701
A commonly used denatured bovine serum albumin (dBSA) was chosen as a bridge to form QDs–PS conjugates.With themodiﬁcation of dBSA,QDswould exhibit a higher stability and photoluminescence quantum yield (Wang et al. 2006). Moreover, a wider selection of excitation wavelengths of dBSA-QDs due to the broad absorption spectra of QDs will give PS a better biocompatibility and a more efﬁcient FRET between PS and QDs by a quick synthesis of water- soluble CdTe QDs with a size-tunable maximum emission wavelength. In the work, dBSA-QDs with an appropriate ﬂuorescence emission wavelength were covalently conjugated to the second generation PS Chlorin e6 (Ce6) to construct a bi-functional ﬂuorescence probe using N-ethyl-N-(3-dimethylamino-propyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxy succinimide (NHS) as the coupling agentswhich would also be tested in OPE in singlet oxygen-generating ability.
4. Photodynamic Inactivation of Chlorin e6 with Halogen Light against Dermatophytes
Ji-Hae Kim, Chung-Sub Han, Sung-Nam Chun & Mi-Young Lee. Toxicol. Environ. Health. Sci. Vol. 6(3), 170-175, 2014
In Figure 3, the antifungal efficacy of chlorin e6-based PDI was compared with that of fluconazole, one of the most generally used antifungal drug, using modified broth dilution methods. Without light illumina-tion, the antifungal activity of fluconazole was greater than that of chlorin e6. Chlorin e6 without light illumination did not reduce the fungal growth, however, upon light illumination, the fungal growth was notably reduced with chlorin-e6 based PDI. Approximately 73 and 85% of the fungal growth were inhibited by 600 and 800 ppm chlorine e6, respectively, in the presence of light. Moreover, the fungal growth was completely inactivated by 1,000 ppm chlorin e6 combined with halogen light.