1.A new class of potent vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors: structure-activity relationships for a series of 9-alkoxymethyl-12-(3-hydroxypropyl)indeno[2,1-a]pyrrolo[3,4-c]carbazole-5-ones and the identification of CEP-5214 and its dimethylglycine ester prodrug clinical candidate CEP-7055.
Gingrich DE1, Reddy DR, Iqbal MA, Singh J, Aimone LD, Angeles TS, Albom M, Yang S, Ator MA, Meyer SL, Robinson C, Ruggeri BA, Dionne CA, Vaught JL, Mallamo JP, Hudkins RL. J Med Chem. 2003 Dec 4;46(25):5375-88.
A series of potent vascular endothelial growth factor R2 (VEGF-R2) tyrosine kinase inhibitors from a new indenopyrrolocarbazole template is reported. The structure-activity relationships for a series of 9-alkoxymethyl-12-(3-hydroxypropyl)indeno[2,1-a]pyrrolo[3,4-c]carbazole-5-ones revealed an optimal R9 substitution with ethoxymethyl 19 (VEGF-R2 IC(50) = 4 nM) and isopropoxymethyl 21 (VEGF-R2 IC(50) = 8 nM) being the most potent inhibitors in the series. The VEGF-R2 activity was reduced appreciably by increasing the size of the R9 alkoxy group or by alpha-methyl branching adjacent to the ring. The combined R9 alkoxymethyl and N12 hydroxypropyl substitutions were required for potent VEGF-R2 activity, and the corresponding thioether analogues were weaker than their ether counterparts. Compound 21 (R9 isopropoxymethyl, CEP-5214) was identified as a potent, low-nanomolar pan inhibitor of human VEGF-R tyrosine kinases, displaying IC(50) values of 16, 8, and 4 nM for VEGF-R1/FLT-1, VEGF-R2/KDR, and VEGF-R3/FLT-4, respectively, with cellular activity equivalent to the isolated enzyme activity.