1.Antibiotic prophylaxis for cardiothoracic operations. Meta-analysis of thirty years of clinical trials.
Kreter B1, Woods M. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1992 Sep;104(3):590-9.
Antistaphylococcal penicillins and first-generation cephalosporins have traditionally been the prophylactic antibiotics of choice for patients undergoing cardiothoracic operations. Recently published studies have claimed improved outcomes with respect to postoperative wound infection when second-generation cephalosporins were used for prophylaxis. The purpose of this study was to critically review the infectious outcomes of prospective, randomized, and controlled studies of cardiothoracic surgery prophylaxis by means of meta-analytic techniques. For each of 28 studies meeting the meta-analysis entry criteria, odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated to compare the prophylactic efficacy of the antibiotic regimens. Odds ratios were then pooled, and a summary odds ratio was calculated for each pairing of antibiotic treatments. Placebo-controlled trials of cardiothoracic prophylaxis demonstrated a consistent benefit to the administration of antibiotic prophylaxis, with an approximate fivefold reduction in wound infection rate.
2.Visual, turbidimetric, and particle-content assessment of compatibility of vinorelbine tartrate with selected drugs during simulated Y-site injection.
Trissel LA1, Martinez JF. Am J Hosp Pharm. 1994 Feb 15;51(4):495-9.
The compatibility of vinorelbine tartrate with selected drugs during simulated Y-site administration was studied. A 5-mL sample of vinorelbine tartrate 1 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection was combined with a 5-mL sample of each of 91 other drugs at concentrations used clinically. Each combination was prepared in duplicate, with the order of mixing being reversed between the two; storage was in constant fluorescent light at 22 degrees C. The admixtures were examined visually in normal fluorescent light and with a Tyndall beam at zero, one, and four hours after preparation. A turbidimeter was used to measure the turbidity of each drug combination at the same intervals. Samples showing visual or turbidimetric evidence of incompatibility were subjected to particle counting and sizing. The majority of the drugs tested were compatible with vinorelbine tartrate; most combinations had a turbidity of less than 0.1 nephelometric turbidity unit.
3.Analytical investigation of beta-lactam antibiotics in pharmaceutical preparations. IX. Colorimetric determination of six cephalosporins of second and third generation in the range of micromolar concentrations.
Issopoulos PB1, Salta SE. Acta Pharm Hung. 1996 Mar;66(2):89-94.
A sensitive, accurate, precise and the same time simple and rapid method for the colorimetric determination of some cephalosporins of the second and third generations, such as: cefoxitin sodium (CFXT), cefaclor (CFCL), cefamandole nafate (CFMD), ceforanide l-lysine (CFRN), cefotaxime sodium (CFTX), and cefurozime sodium (CFRX) was described. The new method proposed is based: a) On the reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II) by the drug analysed and b) On complexation of Fe(II) formed with o-Phenanthroline (O-Phen) consistently the formation of the well known highly stable orange-red coloured chelate complex [Fe(II)-(o-Phen)3]2+ which exhibits an absorption maximum at lambda = 510 nm (pH 4.50 +/- 0.2). Beer's law is obeyed for: 1.0 - 37.5 microgram mL-1 for CFX, 1.0 - 25.0 microgram mL-1 for CFMD, CFRN, and CFTX and 2.0 - 37.5 microgram mL-1 for CFTX and CFCL, while the apparent molar absorptivity ( epsilon in L mol-1cm-1) and the Sandell's sensitivity in (ngcm-2) both referred to the drug analyzed, are 1.
4.The in vitro activity of beta-lactamase inhibitors in combination with cephalosporins against M. tuberculosis.
Chen CH1, Yang MH, Lin JS, Lee YC, Perng RP. Proc Natl Sci Counc Repub China B. 1995 Apr;19(2):80-4.
Although there are reports that the addition of a beta-lactamase inhibitor to ampicillin or amoxicillin greatly improves their in vitro activity against M. tuberculosis, there are no written reports about the antituberculosis effects of beta-lactamase inhibitors in combination with cephalosporins against M. tuberculosis. In this report, we have determined the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 5 cephalosporins with or without combination with beta-lactamase inhibitor against M. tuberculosis strains isolated from patients before antituberculosis treatment and checked the production of beta-lactamase by bacteria before this procedure. Four strains of M. tuberculosis were contaminated during the experiment, and all the other 16 strains hydrolyzed the nitrocefin disc, thus indicating a beta-lactamase producer. The MICs of cephalosporins alone against M. tuberculosis were 200-400 micrograms/ml for ceforanide, 100-400 micrograms/ml for cephapirin, 400-1600 micrograms/ml for cefamandole, 200-1600 micrograms/ml for cefotaxime, and 800-1600 micrograms/ml for ceftriaxone.