1.In vitro assessment of the cytotoxicity of six topical antibiotics to four cultured ocular surface cell lines.
Ayaki M1, Iwasawa A, Niwano Y. Biocontrol Sci. 2012 Jun;17(2):93-9.
To determine the cytotoxicity of antibiotic eyedrops to ocular surface cells using a semi-quantitative method, a range of commercially available antibiotic eyedrops were assessed by using three corneal cell lines and one conjunctival cell line. All antibiotic solutions were free of benzalkonium chloride. Cell viability was determined by the MTT assay and neutral red assay following the exposure of cells to the undiluted, 2- and 10-fold diluted drugs for 10, 30, and 60 min. Toxicity was compared using % cell viability score (%CVS) . The tested eyedrops and values of %CVS50 and %CVS40/80 were Bestron(®) (cefmenoxime, 100, 94) , Panimycin(®) (dibekacin, 86, 58) , Noflo(®) (norfloxacin, 90, 50) , Cravit(®) (levofloxacin, 86, 46) , Tosfulo(®) (tosufloxacin, 57, -3) , and Vigamox(®) (moxifloxacin, 57, -6) . Cell viability markedly increased after dilution. For instance, cell viability assayed by MTT was > 80% for all the measurements in antibiotics diluted 10-fold, and the rate of the measurements showing > 80% cell viability decreased to 43% (31 out of 72 measurements) in the solutions diluted 2-fold.
2.Safety evaluation of cephalosporins based on utilization and adverse drug events: analysis of two databases in China.
Ren X1, Liu D, Ding N, Huang K, Xiong Y, Du G, Zeng F. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2012 Sep;11(5):689-97. doi: 10.1517/14740338.2012.699037. Epub 2012 Jun 19.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety of cephalosporins, based on utilization and adverse drug events (ADEs).
3.Conjunctivitis caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates with reduced cephalosporin susceptibility and multidrug resistance.
Suzuki T1, Kitagawa Y, Maruyama Y, Yamaguchi S, Sakane Y, Miyamoto H, Ohashi Y. J Clin Microbiol. 2013 Dec;51(12):4246-8. doi: 10.1128/JCM.01946-13. Epub 2013 Sep 11.
We report two cases of conjunctivitis caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae with reduced cephalosporin susceptibility. Patients showed no response to cefmenoxime eye drops and intravenous ceftriaxone administration. The patients' condition improved after the addition of oral minocycline. The isolates contained the mosaic penA for reduction of β-lactam susceptibility.