1.Fenton degradation of Cartap hydrochloride: identification of the main intermediates and the degradation pathway.
Tian K1, Ming C1, Dai Y1, Honore Ake KM1. Water Sci Technol. 2015;72(7):1198-205. doi: 10.2166/wst.2015.331.
The advanced oxidation of Cartap hydrochloride (Cartap) promoted by the Fenton system in an aqueous medium was investigated. Based on total organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand and high-performance liquid chromatography, the oxidation of Cartap is quite efficient by the Fenton system. Its long chain is easily destroyed, but the reaction does not proceed to complete mineralization. Ion chromatography detection indicated the formation of acetic acid, propionic acid, formic acid, nitrous acid and sulfuric acid in the reaction mixtures. Further evidence of nitrogen monoxide and sulfur dioxide formation was obtained by using a flue gas analyzer. Monitoring by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer demonstrated the formation of oxalic acid, ethanol, carbon dioxide, and L-alanine ethylamide. Based on these experimental results, plausible degradation pathways for Cartap mineralization in an aqueous medium by the Fenton system are proposed.
2.Evaluation of toxicological impact of cartap hydrochloride on some physiological activities of a non-heterocystous cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya foveolarum.
Singh DP1, Khattar JI2, Gupta M2, Kaur G2. Pestic Biochem Physiol. 2014 Mar;110:63-70. doi: 10.1016/j.pestbp.2014.03.002. Epub 2014 Mar 14.
The present study was aimed to the evaluation of toxicological impact of insecticide cartap hydrochloride on photosynthesis and nitrogen assimilation of a non-heterocystous cyanoprokaryote Leptolyngbya foveolarum isolated from paddy fields of Punjab, India. The microorganism tolerated commercial grade insecticide up to 80 ppm. Lower concentration (20 ppm) of cartap supported good growth with high dry weight of biomass, total protein content, photosynthetic pigments, photosynthesis and respiration compared to untreated control cultures while higher concentrations (40 and 60 ppm) inhibited these parameters in a dose dependent manner. Treatment of the microorganism with 60 ppm cartap lowered the content of photosynthetic pigments with maximum inhibitory effect on phycoerythrin (70% decrease) followed by allophycocyanin (66% decrease). Rates of photosynthesis and respiration were inhibited by 63% and 45%, respectively, while PS-I, II and whole chain activity were decreased by 45%, 67% and 40% respectively, compared to untreated control cultures.
3.Advanced analytical method of nereistoxin using mixed-mode cationic exchange solid-phase extraction and GC/MS.
Park Y1, Choe S2, Lee H2, Jo J2, Park Y2, Kim E2, Pyo J3, Jung JH4. Forensic Sci Int. 2015 Jul;252:143-9. doi: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2015.04.010. Epub 2015 Apr 14.
Nereistoxin(NTX) was originated from a marine annelid worm Lumbriconereis heteropoda and its analogue pesticides including cartap, bensultap, thiocyclam and thiobensultap have been commonly used in agriculture, because of their low toxicity and high insecticidal activity. However, NTX has been reported about its inhibitory neuro toxicity in human and animal body, by blocking nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and it cause significant neuromuscular toxicity, resulting in respiratory failure. We developed a new method to determine NTX in biological fluid. The method involves mixed-mode cationic exchange based solid phase extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for final identification and quantitative analysis. The limit of detection and recovery were substantially better than those of other methods using liquid-liquid extraction or headspace solid phase microextraction. The good recoveries (97±14%) in blood samples were obtained and calibration curves over the range 0.
4.[Determination of 51 carbamate pesticide residues in vegetables by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry based on optimization of QuEChERS sample preparation method].
Wang L, Zhou Y, Huang X, Wang R, Lin Z, Chen Y, Wang D, Lin D, Xu D. Se Pu. 2013 Dec;31(12):1167-75.
The raw extracts of six vegetables (tomato, green bean, shallot, broccoli, ginger and carrot) were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in full scan mode combined with NIST library search to confirm main matrix compounds. The effects of cleanup and adsorption mechanisms of primary secondary amine (PSA) , octadecylsilane (C18) and PSA + C18 on co-extractives were studied by the weight of evaporation residue for extracts before and after cleanup. The suitability of the two versions of QuEChERS method for sample preparation was evaluated for the extraction of 51 carbamate pesticides in the six vegetables. One of the QuEChERS methods was the original un-buffered method published in 2003, and the other was AOAC Official Method 2007.01 using acetate buffer. As a result, the best effects were obtained from using the combination of C18 and PSA for extract cleanup in vegetables. The acetate-buffered version was suitable for the determination of all pesticides except dioxacarb.