Caroverine - CAS 23465-76-1
Category: APIs
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Caroverine is a muscle-relaxing drug, also can be used for the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases and tinnitus. It acts as a nonselective NMDA and AMPA glutamate receptor antagonist.
Related CAS:
55750-05-5 (hydrochloride)
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1.Ubiquinol and the papaverine derivative caroverine prevent the expression of tumour- promoting factors in adenoma and carcinoma colon cancer cells induced by dietary fat.
Nohl H1, Rohr-Udilova N, Gille L, Bieberschulte W, Jurek D, Marian B, Schulte-Hermann R. Biofactors. 2005;25(1-4):87-95.
High consumption of dietary fat promotes colon carcinogenesis. While this effect is well known the underlying mechanism is not understood. Fatty acid hydroperoxides (LOOH) arise from unsaturated fatty acids in the presence of oxygen and elevated temperature during food processing. An approach was made starting from the assumption that LOOH are present in dietary fats as a result of boiling. LOOH undergoes homolytic cleavage in the presence of iron. We studied their effects on gene expression in colorectal tumour cells using linoleic acid hydroperoxide (LOOH) as model compound. Addition to the medium of LT97 adenoma and SW480 carcinoma cells enhanced the production of hydrogen peroxide. Both cell lines were observed to increase VEGF and COX-II expression based on mRNA. Expression of VEGF was inhibited by caroverine and ubiquinon.
2.Pharmacologic treatment for postviral olfactory dysfunction: a systematic review.
Harless L1, Liang J1. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2016 Feb 16. doi: 10.1002/alr.21727. [Epub ahead of print]
BACKGROUND: Postviral olfactory dysfunction (PVOD) is the most common cause of olfactory dysfunction. Several treatments have been presented in the literature. The objective of this study is to systematically review the existing literature on the effectiveness of pharmacologic treatments for PVOD.
3.Low-dose, long-term caroverine administration attenuates impulse noise-induced hearing loss in the rat.
Duan M1, Chen Z, Qiu J, Ulfendahl M, Laurell G, Borg E, Ruan R. Acta Otolaryngol. 2006 Dec;126(11):1140-7.
CONCLUSION: Physiological and morphological assessments indicated that low-dose and long-term caroverine delivery might be a new approach to protect against impulse noise-induced hearing loss.
4.Assessment of caroverine as a potential chemotherapeutical agent in HNSCC cell lines.
Haymerle G1, Thurnher D1, Kadletz L1, Stanisz I1, Brunner M1, Kotowski U1, Enzenhofer E1, Heiduschka G2. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2015 Nov;272(11):3451-6. doi: 10.1007/s00405-014-3364-0. Epub 2014 Oct 29.
Since the prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) still remains poor, identifying novel chemotherapeutic agents is of outmost importance. The anticancer potential of quinoxalines has been described in various tumor entities. Caroverine, also a quinoxaline derivative, has been shown to suppress tumor promotion factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of caroverine on HNSCC cell lines. The HNSCC cell lines SCC9, SCC25, CAL27, and FaDu were incubated with caroverine alone or in combination with cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) or cetuximab. Cell viability was measured using the CCK-8 assay. The murine 3T3 fibroblast cell line was used to address tissue specificity. Apoptosis was visualized by immunohistochemistry. Caroverine showed a dose-dependent growth inhibition in all cell lines, IC50 values ranged from 75.69 to 179.80 µM. This effect was increased when caroverine was combined with cetuximab or 5-FU.
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CAS 23465-76-1 Caroverine

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