Carbohydrates

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Background


BOC Sciences has directed sincere efforts toward providing customers with high quality carbohydrates (Monosaccharide, Oligosaccharides and Polysaccharides) with optimal prices.

Carbohydtrates are one of four major classes of biomolecules in living organisms, playing an important role in nutrition supply, energy transportation, cell composition, etc. Carbohydtrates exist naturally in multiple foods. It is a compound made up of carbon (C) hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms. Carbohydrates are classified as simple or complex accoding to their structures. Simple carbohydrates include monosaccharides and disaccharides, of which most natural sugars are disaccharides. Complex carbohydrates include oligosaccharides and polysaccharides, such as Fructooligosaccharides (FOS), starch and cellulose.

Figure 1.Carbohydrates

Three classes of carbohydrates are provided:

1. Monosaccharides: Monosaccharides are the simplest carbohydrates with the formula CnH2nOn. Monosaccharides are basic units of all kinds of carbohydrates, including glucose, fructose, galactose and so on. The number of carbon atoms is in the range of three to six, and pentose as well as hexose commonly form rings called furanoses and pyranoses, which predominate both in the solid state and in solutions. Monosaccharides have chiral phenomenon, for example, glucose has two isomers: D-Glucose and L-Glucose, which leads to different properties. Monosaccharides exist in vegetables, milk and other foods, besides, they were found participating in many metabolic reactions in living organisms.

2. Oligosaccharides: Oligosaccharide is a carbohydrate polymer containing three to ten monosaccharide units. They are linked by O-glycosidic bond via condensation reaction. Oligosaccharides naturally exist in many foods, as chicory root, onions, wheat, legumes, asparagus, and jicama are rich in oligosaccharides. Examples of some common oligosaccharides are Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO), etc. Research showed that oligosaccharides had an effect of promoting intestinal peristalsis and improving gastrointestinal absorption similarly to water-soluble dietary fiber. However, too much intake of oligosaccharides would cause dyspepsia for humans. In addition, oligosaccharides have some functions like cell recognition and cell adhesion. Glycoproteins and glycolipids are attached to cells as receptors to help some molecules to recognize and bind to different cells.

3. Others: Some carbohydrate derivatives, enzyme substrates and nonionic surfactant are listed in this class. Some of them are naturally formed, and some of them are synthesized to meet broad needs. For instance, Alkylpolyglycoside (APG) composed of hydrophilic glucose and hydrophobic fatty alcohol exhibits an activity of surfactant. APG is widely used in cosmetics and medical field for its low toxicity. Some other carbohydrates are modified with different groups for the application of chemical synthesis, drug design and some else.

Reference:

Ware, A. M., Waghmare, J. T., & Momin, S. A. (2007). Alkylpolyglycoside: Carbohydrate based surfactant. Journal of dispersion science and technology, 28(3), 437-444.