1.β1 tubulin rather than β2 tubulin is the preferred binding target for carbendazim in Fusarium graminearum.
Zhou Y1, Zhu Y2, Li Y3, Duan Y4, Zhang R5, Mingguo Z6. Phytopathology. 2016 May 2. [Epub ahead of print]
Tubulins are the proposed target of anticancer drugs, anthelminthics, and fungicides. In Fusarium graminearum, β2 tubulin has been reported to be the binding target of methyl benzimidazole carbamate (MBC) fungicides. However, the function of F. graminearum β1 tubulin, which shares 76% amino acid sequence identity with β2 tubulin, in MBC sensitivity has been unclear. In this study, MBC sensitivity relative to that of a parental strain (2021) was significantly reduced in a β1 tubulin deletion strain but increased in a β2 tubulin deletion strain, suggesting that β1 tubulin was involved in the MBC sensitivity of F. graminearum. When strain 2021 was grown in a medium with a low or high concentration of the MBC fungicide carbendazim (0.5 or 1.4 μg/ml), the protein accumulation levels were reduced by 47 and 87%, respectively, for β1 tubulin but only by 6 and 24%, respectively, for β2 tubulin. This result was consistent with observations that MBC fungicides are more likely to disrupt β1 tubulin microtubules rather than β2 tubulin microtubules in GFP-β tubulin fusion mutants in vivo.
2.Residues and dissipation kinetics of carbendazim and diethofencarb in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and intake risk assessment.
Li H1, du H2, Fang L2, Dong Z2, Guan S2, Fan W2, Chen Z3. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2016 Mar 16;77:200-205. doi: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2016.03.012. [Epub ahead of print]
Dissipation behaviors and residues of carbendazim and diethofencarb in combination in tomato were investigated. The half-lives were 2.1-3.4 days for carbendazim, and 1.8-3.2 days for diethofencarb at a dose of 1.5 times of the recommended dosage. The residues of carbendazim and diethofencarb were below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) in China one day after application of the combination. The ultimate residues were significantly lower than the maximum permissible intake (MPI) in China at the recommended high dose for both child and adult. The values of the maximum dietary exposure for carbendazim and diethofencarb were 0.26 and 0.27 mg per person per day, respectively. The theoretical maximum daily intake (TMDI) values for carbendazim and diethofencarb were 1.5 and 0.5 mg/day, respectively. The dietary exposure was lower than the MPI, which indicates the harvested tomato samples under the experimental conditions (open field) are safe for human consumption at the recommended high dosage of the wettable powder.