1.BMS-214662 induces mitochondrial apoptosis in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) stem/progenitor cells, including CD34+38- cells, through activation of protein kinase Cbeta.
Pellicano F1, Copland M, Jorgensen HG, Mountford J, Leber B, Holyoake TL. Blood. 2009 Nov 5;114(19):4186-96. doi: 10.1182/blood-2009-05-219550. Epub 2009 Sep 8.
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a hematopoietic stem cell disorder maintained by cancer stem cells. To target this population, we investigated the mechanism of action of BMS-214662, developed as a farnesyl transferase inhibitor (FTI) and unique in inducing apoptosis in these cells. By contrast, a related congener and equally effective FTI, BMS-225975 does not induce apoptosis, indicating a novel mechanism of action. BMS-214662 significantly and selectively induced apoptosis in primitive CD34(+)38(-) CML compared with normal cells. Apoptosis proceeded via the intrinsic pathway: Bax conformational changes, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, generation of reactive oxygen species, release of cytochrome c, and caspase-9/3 activation were noted. Up-regulation of protein kinase Cbeta (PKCbeta), down-regulation of E2F1, and phosphorylation of cyclin A-associated cyclin-dependent kinase 2 preceded these changes. Cotreatment of CML CD34(+) and CD34(+)38(-) cells with PKC modulators, bryostatin-1, or hispidin markedly decreased these early events and the subsequent apoptosis.
2.Quantitative proteomics analysis of BMS-214662 effects on CD34 positive cells from chronic myeloid leukaemia patients.
Balabanov S1, Evans CA, Abraham SA, Pellicano F, Copland M, Walker MJ, Whetton AD, Holyoake TL. Proteomics. 2013 Jan;13(1):153-68. doi: 10.1002/pmic.201200022.
Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) arises in a haemopoietic stem cell and is driven by the Bcr-Abl oncoprotein. Abl kinase inhibitors (protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors) represent standard treatment for CML and induce remission in the majority of patients with early disease, however these drugs do not target leukaemic stem cells (LSCs) effectively, thus preventing cure. Previously, we identified the farnesyl transferase inhibitor BMS-214662 as a selective inducer of apoptosis in LSCs of CML patients relative to normal controls; however, the mechanism underlying LSC-specific apoptosis remains unclear. To identify pathways involved in the favourable effects of BMS-214662 in CML, we employed a proteomic approach (based on iTRAQ) to analyse changes in protein expression in response to drug treatment in the nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions of CD34(+) CML cells. The study identified 88 proteins as altered after drug treatment, which included proteins known to be involved in nucleic acid metabolism, oncogenesis, developmental processes and intracellular protein trafficking.
3.Ethyl methanesulphonate in a parenteral formulation of BMS-214662 mesylate, a selective farnesyltransferase inhibitor: formation and rate of hydrolysis.
Nassar MN1, Cucolo M, Miller SA. Pharm Dev Technol. 2009;14(6):672-7. doi: 10.3109/10837450902980262.
The objectives of the present study were to investigate the formation and rate of hydrolysis of ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) in BMS-214662 mesylate drug substance and parenteral formulation by a gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) method. EMS levels in the drug substance ranged between 0.3 microg/g and 0.8 microg/g. The parenteral formulation contains ethanol and the reaction between residual free methane sulphonic acid and ethanol may lead to the formation of EMS. Given that EMS is a potent mutagen, it is therefore of vital importance to eliminate or reduce the risk of human exposure. Data indicate no significant increase in the levels of EMS following storage of the drug product for 18 weeks at 25 degrees C or six weeks at 60 degrees C indicating that the potential reaction between ethanol and free methane sulphonic acid may not occur in the BMS-214662 formulation under the storage conditions evaluated and therefore causes no plausible safety concerns of EMS exposure in humans.
4.The MEK inhibitor PD184352 enhances BMS-214662-induced apoptosis in CD34+ CML stem/progenitor cells.
Pellicano F1, Simara P, Sinclair A, Helgason GV, Copland M, Grant S, Holyoake TL. Leukemia. 2011 Jul;25(7):1159-67. doi: 10.1038/leu.2011.67. Epub 2011 Apr 12.
The cytotoxic farnesyl transferase inhibitor BMS-214662 has been shown to potently induce mitochondrial apoptosis in primitive CD34+ chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) stem/progenitor cells. Here, to enhance the BMS-214662 apoptotic effect, we further targeted the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, downstream of BCR-ABL, by treating CD34+ CML stem/progenitor cells with a highly selective adenosine triphosphate (ATP) non-competitive MEK inhibitor, PD184352. PD184352 increased the apoptotic effect of BMS-214662 in a CML blast crisis cell line, K562, and in primary chronic phase CD34+ CML cells. Compared with BMS-214662, after combination treatment we observed inhibition of ERK phosphorylation, increased Annexin-V levels, caspase-3, -8 and -9 activation and potentiated mitochondrial damage, associated with decreased levels of anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family protein MCL-1. Inhibition of K-RAS function by a dominant-negative mutant resulted in CML cell death and this process was further enhanced by the addition of BMS-214662 and PD184352.