Triple negative breast adenocarcinoma (triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a breast cancer with negative estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2). With unique pathological and molecular biological characteristics, it is characterized by early recurrence, rapid progression, short survival time and poor prognosis. The traditional tumor treatment mode (surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy) is still the main treatment. However, with the in-depth study of the molecular mechanisms of tumor cell growth, proliferation and apoptosis, tumor therapy has entered the stage of molecular targeting therapy.
Advances in breast cancer research
Breast cancer is like a house with three locks at the front door. The key, or receptor, allows the drug to open the door and kill the cell. However, in triple negative breast cancer, these key factors do not exist, so far, there are few breast cancer drugs to choose from. A protein called p53 inhibits and kills cancer in the human body. However, defective mutant p53 contributes to the growth and reproduction of cancer cells.
Researchers at the University of Missouri have now found that combined drug therapy reduces the risk of triple-negative breast cancer spreading to other parts of the body by 50 percent. “Most deaths from breast cancer, especially triple-negative breast cancer, are due to cancer metastasis.” Professor of Neovascularization of Oncology and Professor of Biomedical Sciences at the College of Veterinary Medicine and Dalton Center for Cardiovascular Disease Research, said Salman Hyder. “At present, we lack chemotherapy for triple-negative breast cancer. Therefore, people take toxic non-specific drugs. We would like to see if this combination therapy can provide a new non-toxic treatment.” The study was carried out on the basis of previous studies at Hyder Labs, using human metastatic cancer mice that had spread to the lungs. The researchers wanted to see if two previously discovered drugs had an effect on metastatic triple-negative breast cancer, one drug calledAPR-246, which restored the ability of p53 protein to kill cancer cells, and 2aG4, which targeted blood vessels to kill cancer cells. “When the two compounds are used alone, the number of cancer metastatic nodules decreases, while when the two compounds are used in combination, the number of cancer metastatic nodules reduced will increase. More importantly, if the two drugs were used in combination, the number of mice suffering from breast cancer would be reduced by 50 per cent. ” Hyder said.
Future and prospects
Both APR-246 and 2aG4 are currently conducting human clinical trials. The researchers hope the findings will strengthen personalized treatment for breast cancer by reducing existing cancer cells and preventing cancer from spreading to other parts of the body. The study highlights the power to transform precision medicine and the prospects for the plan proposed by MU. The plan will bring together industry partners, schools and colleges on campus, as well as federal and state governments, to make accurate and personalized health care possible. The scientific advances made by MU will effectively translate into new drugs, devices and treatments that provide personalized patient care based on individuals’ genes, environment and lifestyle, ultimately improving people health and well-being.
1. Liang, Y., Besch-Williford, C., Benakanakere, I., Thorpe, P. E., & Hyder, S. M. (2011). Targeting mutant p53 protein and the tumor vasculature: an effective combination therapy for advanced breast tumors. Breast cancer research and treatment, 125(2), 407-420.
2. Gebremeskel, S. (2019). DEVELOPING NATURAL KILLER T CELL BASED TOOLS AND STRATEGIES FOR TARGETING BREAST CANCER.