Benzethonium Chloride - CAS 121-54-0
Catalog number: 121-54-0
Category: Inhibitor
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Molecular Formula:
Molecular Weight:
Benzethonium chloride is a potent inhibitor of nAChRs, it inhibits α4β2 nAChRs and α7 nAChRs with IC50 of 49 nM and 122 nM, respectively.
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1. Acute toxic effects of ionic liquids on zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) survival and feeding
David M. Costello,* Loretta M. Brownb and Gary A. Lamberti. Green Chem., 2009, 11, 548–553
The relationship between zebra mussel toxicity and alkyl chain length supports the proposed mechanism of IL toxicity of polar narcosis through membrane disruption. The structures of ILs are similar to cationic surfactants; cationic surfactants have bulky, positively charged head-groups with alkyl chains usually containing more than 10 carbons. Toxicity of cationic surfactants purportedly occurs when lipophilic alkyl chains integrate into and disrupt cellular membranes. Ionic liquids with longer alkyl chains aremore lipophilic, and could therefore integrate more readily into cellular membranes. This mode-of-toxicity to zebra mussels is further supported by increased toxicity for cationic surfactants with alkyl chains longer than those of ILs. (i.e., benzethonium chloride and Clam-trol CT 1)
2. In search of pure liquid salt forms of aspirin: ionic liquid approaches with acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid
Katharina Bica, Christiaan Rijksen, Mark Nieuwenhuyzena and Robin D. Rogers*. Phys.Chem.Chem.Phys., 2010, 12, 2011–2017
In this study, we have paired salicylate (a) and acetyl-salicylate (b) with a set of cations (Fig. 1) of variable biological activity covering antimicrobial or antibacterial activity (tetrabutylphosphonium 1, cetylpyridinium 2, benzethonium 3, benzalkonium 4, hexetidinium 5), analgesics (tramadolium 6), local anesthetics (lidocainium 7, procainium 8), and an antiarrhythmic (procainiumamide 9). The antimicrobial properties of quaternary phosphonium salts such as tetrabutylphosphonium in ILs have been previously described. Cetylpyridinium chloride, benzethonium chloride and benzalkonium chloride are all typical examples of long-chain quaternary ammonium cations with antibacterial properties against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. Interactions of their chloride salts with salicylic acid have been previously studied, and indeed can be frequently found in preservatives or skin-care products. Similarly, hexetidine is a well known antibacterial and antifungal agent often used in mouthwashes.
3. Efficient access to the non-reducing end of low molecular weight heparin for fluorescent Labeling
Zongqiang Wang, Chen Shi, Xuri Wu and Yijun Chen*. Chem. Commun., 2014, 50, 7004—7006
LMWH (MW 2000–8000) 5 bearing a △-unsaturated carboxylic acid at the non reducing end was used as a model for the GAG oligosaccharides. To address the poor reactivity of the carboxylic acid at the non-reducing end of LMWH, a three-step process, including protection, a 1,4-Michael addition, and deprotection, to transform the carboxylic acid of LMWH to a carboxylic benzyl ester was implemented. First, LMWH sodium salt was changed to the form of benzethonium chloride salt. Then, PhCH2Cl was used to esterify the LMWH benzethonium chloride salt to give LMWH benzyl ester 6 with a △-unsaturated benzyl ester at the non-reducing end. Next, LMWH benzyl ester 6 was reacted with 2-MEAB and boric acid in formamide at 50 ℃ for 24 h, and the resulting mixture was dialyzed (MWCO 500) against deionized water to remove any unreacted 2-MEAB and formamide, and then lyophilized to yield the 2-MEAB labeled LMWH benzyl ester 7 (Scheme 2).
4. Bifunctional quaternary ammonium salts based on benzo[1,2,3]thiadiazole-7-carboxylate as plant systemic acquired resistance inducers
P. Lewandowski, R. Kukawka, H. Pospiesznyc and M. Smiglak*. New J. Chem., 2014, 38, 1372—1375
In order to more efficiently apply the active substances on the fields many times it is necessary to prepare formulations of active ingredients with other supporting compounds that allow for better absorption by the crops. There are for example surface tension decreasing compounds (e.g. benzethonium chloride) that enhance the contact of the plant protection product with the surface of leaves, stems and flowers. Such formulations allow not only for better absorption of the compounds into the plant but also for protection of the surface of the leaves from unwanted pests. Equally important is control of the solubility of the plant protection product, which regulates the availability time of the biologically active agent toward the plants.
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