1.Effects of the anthelmintics clorsulon, rafoxanide, mebendazole and arprinocid on Echinostoma caproni in ICR mice [corrected and reapublished in J Helminthol 1996 Mar;70(1):95-6].
Maurer K1, Decere M, Fried B. J Helminthol. 1995 Dec;69(4):373-4.
Female ICR mice, 5 to 6 weeks old, were exposed by stomach tube to 25 metacercarial cysts of Echinostoma caproni per mouse. At 14 days post-exposure, mice were fed by stomach tube clorsulon (1000 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg) or rafoxanide (50 mg/kg, 25 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg) dissolved in dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) carrier and mebendazole (1000 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg) or arprinocid (100 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg) suspended in a 2:1 polyethylene glycol (PEG)/DMSO carrier. All drugs were obtained from Merck Inc. (Rahway, New Jersey, USA) and only single dose regimes were used. Experimentally infected mice that served as controls received either DMSO or 2:1 PEG/DMSO carriers or were not given the carrier. Mice were necropsied 15v, 16, 18 and 20 days postexposure to worms. Doses of 100 mg/kg of clorsulon and 50 mg/kg of rafoxanide were 100% effective in eliminating the echinostomes on day 1 post-administration of the anthelmintics. Mebendazole and arprinocid were ineffective in eliminating worms at 1 or 2 days post drug administration.
2.Eimeria tenella: genetic recombination of markers for precocious development and arprinocid resistance.
Shirley MW1, Harvey DA. Appl Parasitol. 1996 Dec;37(4):293-9.
A mating was made between two populations of Eimeria tenella possessing the complementary traits of normal development (virulence) + resistance to the anticoccidial drug arprinocid or precocious development (attenuation) + drug-sensitivity. A small number of "recombinant" oocysts was recovered. The inheritance of markers from both parents into 22 cloned lines derived from the recombinant oocysts was confirmed by analyses of restriction fragment length polymorphisms of four repetitive DNA sequences.
3.[Therapeutic approaches to cryptosporidiosis. A review of the literature].
de Górgolas Hernández-Mora M1, Verdejo Morcillo C, Fernández Guerrero ML. Rev Clin Esp. 1993 Oct;193(6):322-8.
Cryptosporidiosis is a coccidian infection that usually occurs in children an immunocompromised patients. With the AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) epidemic there have been an increased number of clinical cases and still we don't have an optimal therapeutic regimen to eradicate the infection. Since 1907 when the organism was first described, a large amount of anti-infective agents have been used without success. We present herein a review of the new therapeutic approaches, although none of them is satisfactory and new studies are required for the development of an optimal treatment. Symptomatic and nutritional support are the unique treatment we have so far.
4.Determination of 20 coccidiostats in milk, duck muscle and non-avian muscle tissue using UHPLC-MS/MS.
Clarke L1, Moloney M, O'Mahony J, O'Kennedy R, Danaher M. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2013;30(6):958-69. doi: 10.1080/19440049.2013.794306. Epub 2013 Jun 3.
In this paper, methods were developed to measure coccidiostats in bovine milk, duck muscle and non-avian species. The methods were validated to the maximum levels and MRLs laid down in European Union legislation. A simple sample preparation procedure was developed for the isolation of coccidiostat residues from bovine, ovine, equine, porcine and duck muscle tissue, based on solvent extraction with acetonitrile and concentration. An alternative method had to be developed for milk samples based on the QuEChERS sample preparation approach because of the high water content in this matrix. Milk samples were adjusted to basic pH with sodium hydroxide and extracted by using a slurry of acetonitrile, MgSO4 and NaCl. Purified sample extracts were subsequently analysed by using UHPLC-MS/MS in a 13.2-min chromatographic run. It was found that the use of rapid polarity switching enabled both negatively and positively charged ions to be analysed from a single injection.