1.Terminalia arjuna in coronary artery disease: ethnopharmacology, pre-clinical, clinical & safety evaluation.
Kapoor D1, Vijayvergiya R2, Dhawan V3. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014 Sep 11;155(2):1029-45. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2014.06.056. Epub 2014 Jul 8.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) Wight & Arn. is one of the most popular and beneficial medicinal plants in indigenous system of medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This comprehensive review provides latest updates on traditional use, phytochemistry, pharmacological and toxicological data, clinical efficacy and safety of Terminalia arjuna as well as outlined strategies for future research and development to scientifically validate the therapeutic potential of this plant.
2.Chemical Constituents of Lecythispisonis (Lecythidaceae)--A New Saponin and Complete 1H and 13C Chemical Shift Assignments.
Duarte RC, Matos CR, Braz-Filho R, Mathias L. Nat Prod Commun. 2015 Jun;10(6):871-4.
A novel triterpenoid saponin 3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1' --> 3)-2α,19α-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid [3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1' --> 3)-arjunic acid, 1], ten known compounds [six triterpenoids: α-amyrin (2), β-amyrin (3), germanicol (4), lupeol (5), friedelin (6), friedelanol (7); four steroids--campesterol (8), stigmasterol (9), sitosterol (10), cholesterol (11)], and a long chain alcohol n-eicosan-1-ol (12) were identified in the bark of Lecythis pisonis. The structures were established by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy (1H and 13C-NMR, DEPTQ, 1H-1H-COSY, NOESY, HSQC and HMBC), low (CG-MS) and high resolution mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS), and infrared (IR) spectral data involving comparison with the literature.
3.Catunarosides I-L, four new triterpenoid saponins from the stem bark of Catunaregam spinosa.
Li J1, Huang X, Jiang XH, Zhu QF, Yang Y, Gao GC. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2015;63(5):388-92. doi: 10.1248/cpb.c15-00055. Epub 2015 Mar 12.
Four new triterpenoid saponins, Catunaroside I [3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-arjunic acid 28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside] (1), Catunaroside J [3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-arjunic acid 28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside] (2), Catunaroside K [3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-tormentic acid] (3), and Catunaroside L [3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-pomolic acid] (4), and two known triterpenoid saponin Arjunetoside (5) and Randiasaponin VII (6), were isolated from the stem bark of Catunaregam spinosa. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of their spectral data and chemical evidence.
4.Anti-inflammatory activity of constituents isolated from Terminalia chebula.
Yang MH, Ali Z, Khan IA, Khan SI. Nat Prod Commun. 2014 Jul;9(7):965-8.
This study was aimed at the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of twelve compounds isolated from the methanolic extract of fruits of Terminalia chebula. The activity was determined in terms of their ability to inhibit inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Two gallotannins [chebulinic acid (1) and 2,3,6-tri-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (2)] and two triterpenoids [arjunic acid (3) and arjunolic acid(4)] efficiently reduced nitric oxide (NO) production with IC50 values of 53.4, 55.2, 48.8, and 38.0 microM, respectively. The protein expressions of iNOS and COX-2 were decreased in macrophages by treatment with compounds 1-4 (54-69% and 33-37%, respectively) at 50 microM. This is the first report of antiinflammatory property of 1-4 mediated by inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 activities at the cellular level.