1.Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors in lung cancer treatment: Bench to bed.
Liu R1, Xu KP2, Tan GS3. Eur J Pharmacol. 2015 Dec 15;769:127-33. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2015.11.007. Epub 2015 Nov 5.
The most common and leading cause of cancer-related death in men is lung cancer. Despite the recent advances in chemotherapy, advanced lung cancer still remains incurable. For this, the understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in lung carcinogenesis is necessary to provide potentially effective therapeutic targets for the treatment of lung cancer, and thus the therapeutic limitations can be overcome. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an important inflammation factor that is reported to be up-regulated in different cancers. A number of COX-2 inhibitors have been developed, but most of them are restricted due to the different risk factors. Currently, the FDA has allowed celecoxib to remain on the market but advised physicians to apply this drug with alternative therapies or to use at a low dosage. Some other COX-2 inhibitors, such as, apricoxib and etoricoxib are under critical investigation currently. Celecoxib is being tested in clinical trials against lung cancer, as a single agent or in combination with other agents.
2.A randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter, biomarker-selected, phase 2 study of apricoxib in combination with erlotinib in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.
Gitlitz BJ1, Bernstein E, Santos ES, Otterson GA, Milne G, Syto M, Burrows F, Zaknoen S. J Thorac Oncol. 2014 Apr;9(4):577-82. doi: 10.1097/JTO.0000000000000082.
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) overexpression is associated with a poor prognosis in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and may promote resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors. This randomized phase 2 trial evaluated apricoxib, a novel COX-2 inhibitor, in combination with erlotinib in biomarker-selected patients. Patients with stage IIIB/IV NSCLC previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy were randomized (2:1) to 400 mg/day apricoxib plus 150 mg/day erlotinib (AP/E) or placebo plus erlotinib (P/E) in 21-day cycles until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was time to progression (TTP). A decrease of 50% or more from baseline urinary prostaglandin E2 metabolite after a 5-day, open-label, run-in period was used to select eligible patients. One hundred twenty patients (median age 64 years) were randomized (78 to AP/E and 42 to P/E). Overall median TTP was 1.8 months in the AP/E group and 2.
3.Sulfonamides: a patent review (2008 - 2012).
Carta F1, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT. Expert Opin Ther Pat. 2012 Jul;22(7):747-58. doi: 10.1517/13543776.2012.698264. Epub 2012 Jun 15.
INTRODUCTION: The primary sulfonamide moiety is present in many clinically used drugs, such as diuretics (furosemide, indapamide, chlorthalidone, thiazides); carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitors (CAIs) (including acetazolamide, dichlorophenamide, dorzolamide and brinzolamide); antiepileptics (zonisamide and sulthiame); the antipsychotic sulpiride and the cycloxygenase 2 (COX2) inhibitors celecoxib and valdecoxib. Recently, novel drugs have been launched, such as apricoxib and pazopanib, which also incorporate this group.
4.First-line treatment of metastatic pancreatic cancer.
Tokh M1, Bathini V, Saif MW. JOP. 2012 Mar 10;13(2):159-62.
Metastatic pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignancy that is difficult to treat. Gemcitabine monotherapy has been used first line and many contemporary treatment approaches have focused on gemcitabine plus experimental agents. The 2012 ASCO Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium Abstract #213 is a study of gemcitabine with IPI-926, a novel hedgehog pathway inhibitor. Abstract #227 is a study of gemcitabine with ⁹⁰Y-hPAM4 radioimmunotherapy with yttrium labeled anti-mucin humanized antibody. Abstract #296 is a study of gemcitabine with temsirolimus, an mTOR inhibitor. Gemcitabine and erlotinib has shown slight advantages to gemcitabine alone. Abstract #253 takes this one step further and evaluates gemcitabine and erlotinib with apricoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor. FOLFIRINOX has shown superiority to gemcitabine; however, doing so at the cost of significantly greater toxicity. Abstract #199, is a study which examines the cost effectiveness of first line FOLFIRINOX approaches.