1.In vitro cytotoxicity evaluation of HDAC inhibitor Apicidin in pancreatic carcinoma cells subsequent time and dose dependent treatment.
Bauden M1, Tassidis H2, Ansari D3. Toxicol Lett. 2015 Jul 2;236(1):8-15. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2015.03.017. Epub 2015 Apr 24.
Apicidin is a potent histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI) that selectively binds to histone deacetylases (HDACs) class I and interferes with the deacetylation process, which results in modification of acetylation level of cellular proteins. The aim of the study was to investigate the potential time and dose dependent cytotoxicity of the test compound, Apicidin, in pancreatic cancer cells Capan-1 and Panc-1 as well as estimate maximal tolerable dose (MTD) of the test agent and determine EC50 using four complementary colorimetric cytotoxicity or viability assays. The cells were treated with increasing concentrations of Apicidin (0-5000nM) for 2, 4 and 6h (short term exposure) or 24, 48 and 72h (long term exposure) before conducting cytotoxic analyses with lactate dehydrogenase assay or viability analyses with sulforhodamine B (SRB), methyl tetrazolium (MTT) and crystal violet (CV) assays. In order to investigate whether Apicidin irreversibly affects the cells already during the short term exposure, the medium containing Apicidin was removed and replaced with fresh culturing medium after 6h of treatment.
2.Apicidin inhibits cell growth by downregulating IGF-1R in salivary mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells.
Ahn MY1, Ahn JW1, Kim HS2, Lee J3, Yoon JH1. Oncol Rep. 2015 Apr;33(4):1899-907. doi: 10.3892/or.2015.3776. Epub 2015 Feb 2.
Inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) has emerged as a new target for cancer therapies. The present study examined the antitumor effect and molecular mechanism of the HDAC inhibitor apicidin in YD-15 human salivary mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) cells. The cells were treated with apicidin and cell death was quantified using an MTT assay. Apoptosis and autophagy were measured using flow cytometry, immunoblot analysis and cell staining. Regulation of the signaling pathways was monitored using immunoblot analysis and co-treatment with specific inhibitors. Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) was knocked down using specific siRNA. Apicidin significantly inhibited the proliferation of MEC cells. Apicidin also induced apoptosis through the inactivation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and AKT/mTOR signaling and activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), whereas apicidin promoted autophagy through inactivation of the AKT/mTOR signaling.