1.ENOblock, a unique small molecule inhibitor of the non-glycolytic functions of enolase, alleviates the symptoms of type 2 diabetes.
Cho H;Um J;Lee JH;Kim WH;Kang WS;Kim SH;Ha HH;Kim YC;Ahn YK;Jung DW;Williams DR Sci Rep. 2017 Mar 8;7:44186. doi: 10.1038/srep44186.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) significantly impacts on human health and patient numbers are predicted to rise. Discovering novel drugs and targets for treating T2DM is a research priority. In this study, we investigated targeting of the glycolysis enzyme, enolase, using the small molecule ENOblock, which binds enolase and modulates its non-glycolytic 'moonlighting' functions. In insulin-responsive cells ENOblock induced enolase nuclear translocation, where this enzyme acts as a transcriptional repressor. In a mammalian model of T2DM, ENOblock treatment reduced hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Liver and kidney tissue of ENOblock-treated mice showed down-regulation of known enolase target genes and reduced enolase enzyme activity. Indicators of secondary diabetic complications, such as tissue apoptosis, inflammatory markers and fibrosis were inhibited by ENOblock treatment. Compared to the well-characterized anti-diabetes drug, rosiglitazone, ENOblock produced greater beneficial effects on lipid homeostasis, fibrosis, inflammatory markers, nephrotoxicity and cardiac hypertrophy. ENOblock treatment was associated with the down-regulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1, which are known to produce anti-diabetic effects.
2.A unique small molecule inhibitor of enolase clarifies its role in fundamental biological processes.
Jung DW;Kim WH;Park SH;Lee J;Kim J;Su D;Ha HH;Chang YT;Williams DR ACS Chem Biol. 2013;8(6):1271-82. doi: 10.1021/cb300687k. Epub 2013 Apr 22.
Enolase is a component of the glycolysis pathway and a "moonlighting" protein, with important roles in diverse cellular processes that are not related to its function in glycolysis. However, small molecule tools to probe enolase function have been restricted to crystallography or enzymology. In this study, we report the discovery of the small molecule "ENOblock", which is the first, nonsubstrate analogue that directly binds to enolase and inhibits its activity. ENOblock was isolated by small molecule screening in a cancer cell assay to detect cytotoxic agents that function in hypoxic conditions, which has previously been shown to induce drug resistance. Further analysis revealed that ENOblock can inhibit cancer cell metastasis in vivo. Moreover, an unexpected role for enolase in glucose homeostasis was revealed by in vivo analysis. Thus, ENOblock is the first reported enolase inhibitor that is suitable for biological assays. This new chemical tool may also be suitable for further study as a cancer and diabetes drug candidate.
3.ENOblock Does Not Inhibit the Activity of the Glycolytic Enzyme Enolase.
Satani N;Lin YH;Hammoudi N;Raghavan S;Georgiou DK;Muller FL PLoS One. 2016 Dec 28;11(12):e0168739. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0168739. eCollection 2016.
Inhibition of glycolysis is of great potential for the treatment of cancer. However, inhibitors of glycolytic enzymes with favorable pharmacological profiles have not been forthcoming. Due to the nature of their active sites, most high-affinity transition-state analogue inhibitors of glycolysis enzymes are highly polar with poor cell permeability. A recent publication reported a novel, non-active site inhibitor of the glycolytic enzyme Enolase, termed ENOblock (N-[2-[2-2-aminoethoxy)ethoxy]ethyl]4-4-cyclohexylmethyl)amino]6-4-fluorophenyl)methyl]amino]1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]benzeneacetamide). This would present a major advance, as this is heterocyclic and fully cell permeable molecule. Here, we present evidence that ENOblock does not inhibit Enolase enzymatic activity in vitro as measured by three different assays, including a novel 31P NMR based method which avoids complications associated with optical interferences in the UV range. Indeed, we note that due to strong UV absorbance, ENOblock interferes with the direct spectrophotometric detection of the product of Enolase, phosphoenolpyruvate. Unlike established Enolase inhibitors, ENOblock does not show selective toxicity to ENO1-deleted glioma cells in culture.