Neoplasm is defined as an abnormal mass of tissue that grows in an uncontrolled manner when compared to normal tissue growth rates. It may originate from one site such as breast, brain, or bone and it has the capacity to spread to other systems which is commonly known as metastasis. Neoplasm can be divided into three types: benign neoplasm, premalignant neoplasm and malignant neoplasm. Benign neoplasm is not cancerous. It does not invade neighboring tisssue or metastasize to other parts of the body. Premalignant neoplasm has not become cancerous, but has the potential to transform into malignant neoplasm. Malignant neoplasm means that the neoplasm has become cancerous, which is also called cancer. It can be metastasize to other parts of the body through the blood anflymph system.
The cardinal signs and symptoms of this pathology such as night sweat, chills, fever, and weight loss are common to all patients with neoplasm and those symptoms are frequently associated with reduction in movement. However, based on the anatomic location of any neoplasm, each individual patient may present to a physician with specific yet different signs and symptoms that may or may not affect certain aspects of the movement system. Examples of symptoms affecting movement include: diplopia, gait disturbances, hyperesthesia, shortness of breath, or, loss of balance and co-ordination.
The immune system plays a critical role in cancer control through the dynamic association with tumor cells. The key features of an effective immune response include specificity, stability, trafficking, and antigen spread by which the immune system contributes to the recognition and rejection of malignant cells. Cancer cells express a variety of tumor antigens, which are the targets for an immune response. However, spontaneous immune responses to these antigens are thought to be responsible for the failure of the immune control and thus insufficient for tumor regression. The identification of key molecules that restore the ability of the immune system to fight cancer and infections has led to the development of novel immunotherapeutic approaches for cancer treatment. The goal of cancer immunotherapy is to induce anti-tumor responses, augment immune surveillance, and relieve immune suppression by the host immune system.
Benign neoplasm can be treated through medicines and surgery. Current immunotherapies for malignant neoplasm (cancer) include therapeutic vaccines, immune adjuvants, cytokines, immune checkpoint inhibitors, and adoptive T cell transfer. Therapeutic vaccines are designed to treat established cancers and may be used in the induction of the tumor-directed immune response of the patients through the introduction of tumor antigens. The other approaches such as immune checkpoint inhibitors and adoptive T cell transfer are designed to augment anti-cancer immunity against cancer. Immunotherapy is a systemic therapeutic approach to achieve long-lasting responses or even cure in various types of cancer including ovarian cancer. It was reported that immunotherapy after the completion of chemotherapy might induce prolonged disease-free survival rate of patients and might be a promising approach, which plays a protective role of the immune system to achieve complete cure of advanced ovarian cancer.
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