1.[Triterpenoids from Leaves of Ilex latifolia].
Wang CQ, Wang HT, Xu H, Shi YP. Zhong Yao Cai. 2015 Aug;38(8):1653-5.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the chemical constituents from the leaves of Ilex latifolia.
2.β-Amyrin, a pentacyclic triterpene, exhibits anti-fibrotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects on dimethyl nitrosamine-induced hepatic fibrosis in male rats.
Thirupathi A1, Silveira PC2, Nesi RT2, Pinho RA2. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2016 Mar 22. pii: 0960327116638727. [Epub ahead of print]
Hepatic fibrosis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Attenuation of fibrogenic process can significantly lower the mortality rate. However, pharmaceutical intervention at fibrogenesis stage remains a major task in medicine. So there is a need for a natural compound to treat hepatic fibrosis. This study was outlined to investigate the anti-fibrotic effect of β-amyrin in dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced hepatic fibrosis male rats. Serum liver function markers (aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase), oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reduced content and vitamin C), tissue inflammatory marker (tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α)), apoptosis marker (caspase 3) and fibrolytic marker (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1)) were evaluated before and after β-amyrin treatment in DMN-induced rat.
3.Anti-allergic Inflammatory Triterpenoids Isolated from the Spikes of Prunella vulgaris.
Choia HG, Kim TH, Kim SH, Kim JA. Nat Prod Commun. 2016 Jan;11(1):31-2.
Twelve known triterpenoids (1-12) and two steroids (13 and 14) have been isolated from the spike of the plant Prunella vulgaris. Among them, 2α,3α,23-trihydroxyursa-12,20(30)-dien-28-oic acid (10) was isolated for the first time from this plant. All isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effect on the gene expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and release of histamine in human mast cells. β-Amyrin (5), 10, and euscaphic acid (12) showed suppression of histamine release with percentage inhibitions of 46.7, 57.9, and 54.2%, respectively. In addition, 5 and 10 showed strong inhibition of TNF-α and IL-6 in the test for pro-inflammatory cytokines. Our results suggest that compounds 5 and 10 largely contribute to the anti-allergic inflammatory effect of P. vulgaris.
4.Caatinga plants: Natural and semi-synthetic compounds potentially active against Trichomonas vaginalis.
Vieira Pde B1, Silva NL2, da Silva GN3, Silva DB4, Lopes NP5, Gnoatto SC6, da Silva MV7, Macedo AJ8, Bastida J9, Tasca T10. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2016 May 1;26(9):2229-36. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2016.03.061. Epub 2016 Mar 16.
Trichomonas vaginalis causes trichomoniasis; the most common but overlooked non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. The treatment is based at 5'-nitroimidazoles, however, failure are related to resistance of T. vaginalis to chemotherapy. Caatinga is a uniquely Brazilian region representing a biome with type desert vegetation and plants present diverse biological activity, however, with few studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the activity against T. vaginalis of different plants from Caatinga and identify the compounds responsible by the activity. A bioguided fractionation of Manilkara rufula was performed and four major compounds were identified: caproate of α-amyrin (1b), acetate of β-amyrin (2a), caproate of β-amyrin (2b), and acetate of lupeol (3a). In addition, six derivatives of α-amyrin (1), β-amyrin (2) and lupeol (3) were synthesized and tested against the parasite. Ursolic acid (5) reduced about 98% of parasite viability after 2h of incubation and drastic ultrastructural alterations were observed by scanning electron microscopy.