1.Identification of GLA/SE as an effective adjuvant for the induction of robust humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to EBV-gp350 in mice and rabbits.
Heeke DS1, Lin R1, Rao E2, Woo JC2, McCarthy MP3, Marshall JD4. Vaccine. 2016 Apr 13. pii: S0264-410X(16)30140-2. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.04.012. [Epub ahead of print]
Childhood infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is often asymptomatic and may result in mild flu-like symptoms, but exposure during adolescence and young adulthood can lead to acute infectious mononucleosis (AIM) with a pathology characterized by swollen lymph nodes, sore throat, and severe fatigue lasting weeks or months. A vaccine targeting the envelope glycoprotein gp350 adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide complexed with the TLR4 agonist monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) achieved a 78% reduction in AIM incidence in a small phase II trial of college-age individuals, but development of this vaccine was halted by the manufacturer. Here, we report the evaluation in mice and rabbits of an EBV-gp350 vaccine combined with an adjuvant composed of the synthetic TLR4 agonist glucopyranosyl lipid A (GLA) integrated into stable emulsion (SE). In mice, GLA/SE-adjuvanted gp350 generated high IgG titers (both IgG1 and IgG2a/c subtypes), elevated EBV-neutralizing antibody titers, and robust poly-functional anti-gp350 CD4+ T cell responses.
2.Defining the optimal formulation and schedule of a candidate toxoid vaccine against Clostridium difficile infection: A randomized Phase 2 clinical trial.
de Bruyn G1, Saleh J2, Workman D3, Pollak R4, Elinoff V5, Fraser NJ6, Lefebvre G7, Martens M8, Mills RE9, Nathan R10, Trevino M11, van Cleeff M12, Foglia G13, Ozol-Godfrey A14, Patel DM14, Pietrobon PJ14, Gesser R14; H-030-012 Clinical Investigator Study Vaccine. 2016 Mar 21. pii: S0264-410X(16)00339-X. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.03.028. [Epub ahead of print]
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile, a major cause of nosocomial and antibiotic-associated diarrhea, carries a significant disease and cost burden. This study aimed to select an optimal formulation and schedule for a candidate toxoid vaccine against C. difficile toxins A and B.
3.Electrocoagulation mechanism of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) on a zinc anode: Influence of cathodes and anions.
Wang Y1, Lin H1, Jin F1, Niu J2, Zhao J1, Bi Y1, Li Y1. Sci Total Environ. 2016 Mar 30;557-558:542-550. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.03.114. [Epub ahead of print]
Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of cathode materials and anions (Cl-, SO42-, NO3-, and CO32-/HCO3-) on perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) removal in electrocoagulation process using zinc anode. The results indicated that the hydroxide flocs generated in-situ in the electrocoagulation process using the stainless steel rod as cathode were more effective than those using aluminum rod as cathode for the removal of PFOA after 20min of electrocoagulation at a current density of 0.5mAcm-2. Hydroxide flocs generated in-situ in the electrocoagulation in the presence of Cl-/NO3- could effectively remove PFOA from aqueous solution with the removal ratios of 99.7%/98.1% and 98.9%/97.3% using stainless steel rod and aluminum rod as cathode, respectively. However, the PFOA removal ratios were 96.2%/4.1% and 7.4%/4.6% using stainless steel rod and aluminum rod as cathode, respectively, in the presence of SO42- and CO32-/HCO3-. The different removal ratios of PFOA during the electrocoagulation process were primarily due to the fact that the hydroxide flocs generated in-situ were different in the presence of diverse cathodes and anions.
4.Erythronium japonicum attenuates histopathological lung abnormalities in a mouse model of ovalbumin-induced asthma.
Seo JH1, Bang MA2, Kim G3, Cho SS4, Park DH1. Int J Mol Med. 2016 May;37(5):1221-8. doi: 10.3892/ijmm.2016.2541. Epub 2016 Mar 28.
Asthma is a chronic lung condition that can induce mucus hypersecretion and pulmonary obstruction and may even cause death, particularly in children and older individuals. Erythronium japonicum (E. japonicum) is a traditional herb used in Korea and East Asian countries that has been found to exert free radical scavenging activity and anti-proliferative effects in human colorectal carcinoma cells. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-asthmatic effects of an extract of E. japonicum in a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)‑induced asthma. Female BALB/c mice were sensitized with an intraperitoneal injection of OVA and aluminum hydroxide hydrate on days 1 and 8 and then received the following treatments on days 21 to 25: i) control (no treatment), ii) sterilized tap water (given orally), iii) 1 mg/kg/day dexamethasone (administered orally), iv) 60 mg/kg/day E. japonicum extract, and v) 600 mg/kg/day E. japonicum extract. On the same days, all the mice except those in the control group were challenged 1 h later with nebulized 5% OVA for 30 min.