1.Intrapulmonary Pharmacokinetics of Levonadifloxacin following Oral Administration of Alalevonadifloxacin to Healthy Adult Subjects.
Rodvold KA;Gotfried MH;Chugh R;Gupta M;Yeole R;Patel A;Bhatia A Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2018 Feb 23;62(3). pii: e02297-17. doi: 10.1128/AAC.02297-17. Print 2018 Mar.
Alalevonadifloxacin (WCK 2349) is a novel l-alanine ester prodrug of levonadifloxacin that is being developed as an oral fluoroquinolone antibiotic. The primary objective of this study was to determine and compare plasma, epithelial lining fluid (ELF), and alveolar macrophage (AM) concentrations of levonadifloxacin following oral administration of alalevonadifloxacin to healthy adult subjects. Levonadifloxacin concentrations in plasma, ELF, and AM samples from 30 healthy subjects were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) following oral dosing of alalevonadifloxacin (1,000 mg twice daily for 5 days). Six subjects were assigned to each bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid sampling time, i.e., 2, 4, 6, 8, or 12 h after the ninth oral dose. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters were determined from serial total plasma concentrations collected over a 12-h interval following the first and ninth oral doses. Penetration ratios were calculated from the areas under the concentration-time curves from 0 to 12 h (AUC;0-12;) for plasma, ELF, and AM by using mean (and median) concentrations at each BAL sampling time. Unbound plasma concentrations (∼85% plasma protein binding) were used to determine site-to-plasma penetration ratios.