AG-1024 - CAS 65678-07-1
Catalog number: 65678-07-1
Category: Inhibitor
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AG-1024 is also called Tyrphostin, is a selective inhibitor of IGF-1R. AG-1024 was used to evaluate effects on proliferation, radiosensitivity, and radiation-induced cell apoptosis in a human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Exposure to Tyrphostin AG 1024 inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in a time-dependent manner, and the degree of growth inhibition for IC20 plus irradiation (4 Gy) was up to 50% compared to the control.
AG1024; AG-1024; AG 1024. Tyrphostin.
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1.The tyrphostin AG1024 accelerates the degradation of phosphorylated forms of retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and restores pRb tumor suppressive function in melanoma cells.
von Willebrand M;Zacksenhaus E;Cheng E;Glazer P;Halaban R Cancer Res. 2003 Mar 15;63(6):1420-9.
Constitutive cell surface receptor kinase signaling and persistent phosphorylation/inactivation of the retinoblastoma (pRb) family of proteins (pRb, p107 and p130, known as pocket proteins) have been implicated in conferring uncontrolled growth to melanoma cells. However, the signals linking receptor kinase activity to neutralization of pocket proteins have not yet been fully elucidated. We therefore used specific chemical inhibitors to examine pRb regulation in melanoma cells. The most efficient agent, AG1024, known as an inhibitor of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor and insulin receptor, arrested melanoma cell growth in vitro at nanomolar concentrations within 24 h of application. AG1024 inhibited the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway and restored pRb tumor suppressive function. The latter was observed by the reduction in the phosphorylated forms of pRb, p107 and p130, and the formation of growth suppressive DNA binding complexes consisting of pRb and E2F1 or E2F3. The loss of phosphorylated forms of pRb at early time points after AG1024 application was not associated with suppression of cyclin-dependent kinases 2 and 4 activity but rather with proteasomal and nonproteasomal degradation.
2.IGF-1 promotes Brn-4 expression and neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells via the PI3K/Akt pathway.
Zhang X;Zhang L;Cheng X;Guo Y;Sun X;Chen G;Li H;Li P;Lu X;Tian M;Qin J;Zhou H;Jin G PLoS One. 2014 Dec 4;9(12):e113801. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0113801. eCollection 2014.
Our previous studies indicated that transcription factor Brn-4 is upregulated in the surgically denervated hippocampus in vivo, promoting neuronal differentiation of hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs) in vitro. The molecules mediating Brn-4 upregulation in the denervated hippocampus remain unknown. In this study we examined the levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in hippocampus following denervation. Surgical denervation led to a significant increase in IGF-1 expression in vivo. We also report that IGF-1 treatment on NSCs in vitro led to a marked acceleration of Brn-4 expression and cell differentiation down neuronal pathways. The promotion effects were blocked by PI3K-specific inhibitor (LY294002), but not MAPK inhibitor (PD98059); levels of phospho-Akt were increased by IGF-1 treatment. In addition, inhibition of IGF-1 receptor (AG1024) and mTOR (rapamycin) both attenuated the increased expression of Brn-4 induced by IGF-1. Together, the results demonstrated that upregulation of IGF-1 induced by hippocampal denervation injury leads to activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, which in turn gives rise to upregulation of the Brn-4 and subsequent stem cell differentiation down neuronal pathways.
3.Oxidative stress contributes to the enhanced expression of Gqα/PLCβ1 proteins and hypertrophy of VSMC from SHR: role of growth factor receptor transactivation.
Atef ME;Anand-Srivastava MB Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2016 Mar 1;310(5):H608-18. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00659.2015. Epub 2016 Jan 8.
We showed previously that vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) exhibit overexpression of Gqα/PLCβ1 proteins, which contribute to increased protein synthesis through the activation of MAP kinase signaling. Because oxidative stress has been shown to be increased in hypertension, the present study was undertaken to examine the role of oxidative stress and underlying mechanisms in enhanced expression of Gqα/PLCβ1 proteins and VSMC hypertrophy. Protein expression was determined by Western blotting, whereas protein synthesis and cell volume, markers for VSMC hypertrophy, were determined by [(3)H]-leucine incorporation and three-dimensional confocal imaging, respectively. The increased expression of Gqα/PLCβ1 proteins, increased protein synthesis, and augmented cell volume exhibited by VSMCs from SHRs were significantly attenuated by antioxidants N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), a scavenger of superoxide anion, DPI, an inhibitor of NAD(P)H oxidase. In addition, PP2, AG1024, AG1478, and AG1295, inhibitors of c-Src, insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), respectively, also attenuated the enhanced expression of Gqα/PLCβ1 proteins and enhanced protein synthesis in VSMCs from SHRs toward control levels.
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